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Architecture-aware coding for distributed storage: Repairable block failure resilient codes

  • * Corresponding author: Gokhan Calis

    * Corresponding author: Gokhan Calis 
G. Calis is with Western Digital Corporation, San Jose, CA 95119. O. Ozan Koyluoglu is with University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720. The paper was submitted when both authors were with Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85712. This paper was in part presented at 2014 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT 2014), Honolulu, HI, June 2014. This work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grants No CCF-1563622 and CNS-1617335.
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  • In large scale distributed storage systems (DSS) deployed in cloud computing, correlated failures resulting in simultaneous failure (or, unavailability) of blocks of nodes are common. In such scenarios, the stored data or a content of a failed node can only be reconstructed from the available live nodes belonging to the available blocks. To analyze the resilience of the system against such block failures, this work introduces the framework of Block Failure Resilient (BFR) codes, wherein the data (e.g., a file in DSS) can be decoded by reading out from a same number of codeword symbols (nodes) from a subset of available blocks of the underlying codeword. Further, repairable BFR codes are introduced, wherein any codeword symbol in a failed block can be repaired by contacting a subset of remaining blocks in the system. File size bounds for repairable BFR codes are derived, and the trade-off between per node storage and repair bandwidth is analyzed, and the corresponding minimum storage regenerating (BFR-MSR) and minimum bandwidth regenerating (BFR-MBR) points are derived. Explicit codes achieving the two operating points for a special case of parameters are constructed, wherein the underlying regenerating codewords are distributed to BFR codeword symbols according to combinatorial designs. Finally, BFR locally repairable codes (BFR-LRC) are introduced, an upper bound on the resilience is derived and optimal code construction are provided by a concatenation of Gabidulin and MDS codes. Repair efficiency of BFR-LRC is further studied via the use of BFR-MSR/MBR codes as local codes. Code constructions achieving optimal resilience for BFR-MSR/MBR-LRCs are provided for certain parameter regimes. Overall, this work introduces the framework of block failures along with optimal code constructions, and the study of architecture-aware coding for distributed storage systems.

    Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary: 58F15, 58F17; Secondary: 53C35.

    Citation:

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  • Figure 1.  A data-center architecture where top-of-rack (TOR) switch of the first rack fails

    Figure 2.  (a) Node repair in regenerating codes. (b) Node repair in relaxation of regenerating codes. (c) Trade-off curves in toy example.

    Figure 3.  Repair process for $b = 2$ (two blocks) case

    Figure 4.  (a) Ratio $\frac{\gamma^{\textrm{k-odd}}_{\textrm{BFR-MSR}}}{\gamma_{\textrm{MBR}}}$ vs. $d$. (b) Ratio $\frac{\gamma^{\textrm{k-even}}_{\textrm{BFR-MSR}}}{\gamma_{\textrm{MBR}}}$ vs. $d$

    Figure 5.  Transpose code is a two-block BFR-MBR code

    Figure 6.  (a) Matrix representation of block design. (b) Threeblock BFR-RC

    Figure 7.  Illustrating the construction of BFR codes using projective plane based placement of regenerating codes. ($n' = \tilde{n}-\frac{\tilde{n}}{r}+1.)$

    Figure 8.  Data center architecture. Each rack resembles a block and each cluster forms a local group for node repair operations in the BFR model

    Figure 9.  Repair delay vs. storage overhead comparisons for $b = 7$, $n = 21$ and $\sigma = 3$. (a) Data points for possible cases of each node. (b) Lower envelope of Fig. 9a when zoomed in

    Figure 10.  Repair delay vs. storage overhead comparisons for $b = 7$ and $\sigma = 3$, (a) when $n = 21$, (b) when $n = 35$

    Figure 11.  Construction of a set $\mathcal{B}^*$ with $H(\mathbf{c}(\mathcal{B}^*)) <\mathcal{M}$ for BFR-LRC

    Table 1.  Summary of the contributions

    Characterization of BFR points $d_r \geq k_c $ and $\sigma <\rho$Section 3.1.1
    Characterization of BFR points $d_r \geq k_c $ and $\sigma \geq \rho$Section 3.1.2
    Characterization of BFR points $d_r < k_c $ and $\sigma < \rho$Section 3.2
    BFR codes $b=2$, $d_r \geq k_c $, $\sigma=1$ and $\rho=0$Section 4.1
    BFR codes $d_r \geq k_c $, $\sigma=1$ and $\rho=0$Section 4.2
    BFR codes $d_r \geq k_c $, $\sigma < b-1$ and $\rho = 0$Section 4.3
    BFR-LRC and code constructionsresilience $\rho$Section 5.1, 5.2
    Local regeneration in BFR-LRC $d_r \geq k_c $, $\sigma < b-1$ and $\rho_L = 0$2Section 5.3
    Relaxed BFRany set of parametersSection 6.2
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