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Multiple solutions of second-order ordinary differential equation via Morse theory

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  • In this paper, we consider the the second-order ordinary differential equation with periodic boundary problem $ - \ddot{x}(t)=f(t,x(t))$, subject to $x(0)-x(2\pi)=\dot{x}(0)-\dot{x}(2\pi)=0$, where $f:C([0, 2\pi]\times R, R)$. The operator $K=(-\frac{d^2}{dt^2}+I)^{-1}$ plays an important role. By using Morse index, Leray-Schauder degree and Morse index theorem of the type Lazer-Solimini, we obtain that the equation has at least two or three nontrivial solutions without assuming nondegeneracy of critical points and has at least four nontrivial solutions assuming nondegeneracy of critical points.
    Mathematics Subject Classification: 34C25, 37B30, 37J45.


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