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Traveling wave solutions in a nonlocal reaction-diffusion population model

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  • This paper is concerned with a nonlocal reaction-diffusion equation with the form \begin{eqnarray} \frac{\partial u}{\partial t}=\frac{\partial^{2}u}{\partial x^{2}}+u\left\{ 1+\alpha u-\beta u^{2}-(1+\alpha-\beta)(\phi\ast u) \right\}, \quad (t,x)\in (0,\infty) \times \mathbb{R}, \end{eqnarray} where $\alpha $ and $\beta$ are positive constants, $0<\beta<1+\alpha$. We prove that there exists a number $c^*\geq 2$ such that the equation admits a positive traveling wave solution connecting the zero equilibrium to an unknown positive steady state for each speed $c>c^*$. At the same time, we show that there is no such traveling wave solutions for speed $c<2$. For sufficiently large speed $c>c^*$, we further show that the steady state is the unique positive equilibrium. Using the lower and upper solutions method, we also establish the existence of monotone traveling wave fronts connecting the zero equilibrium and the positive equilibrium. Finally, for a specific kernel function $\phi(x):=\frac{1}{2\sigma}e^{-\frac{|x|}{\sigma}}$ ($\sigma>0$), by numerical simulations we show that the traveling wave solutions may connects the zero equilibrium to a periodic steady state as $\sigma$ is increased. Furthermore, by the stability analysis we explain why and when a periodic steady state can appear.
    Mathematics Subject Classification: 35C07, 35B40, 35K57, 92D25.


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