April  2021, 20(4): 1497-1519. doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2021030

An eigenvalue problem for nonlinear Schrödinger-Poisson system with steep potential well

Department of Applied Mathematics, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan

Received  October 2020 Revised  January 2021 Published  March 2021

Fund Project: The author is supported in part by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (Grant No. 108-2115-M-390-007-MY2,108-2811-M-390-500)

In this paper, we study an eigenvalue problem for Schrödinger-Poisson system with indefinite nonlinearity and potential well as follows:
$ \begin{equation*} \begin{cases} -\Delta u+\mu V(x)u+K(x)\phi u = \lambda f(x)u+g(x)|u|^{p-2}u\ \ &\mbox{in}\ \ \mathbb{R}^3, \\ -\Delta \phi = K(x)u^2\ \ &\mbox{in}\ \ \mathbb{R}^3, \end{cases} \end{equation*} $
where
$ 4\leq p<6 $
, the parameters
$ \mu, \lambda>0 $
,
$ V\in C(\mathbb{R}^3) $
is a potential well with the bottom
$ \overline\Omega: = \{x\in\mathbb{R}^3 : V(x) = 0\} $
, and the functions
$ f $
and
$ g $
are allowed to be sign-changing. By establishing an approximate estimate between the positive principal eigenvalue of
$ -\Delta u+\mu V(x)u = \lambda f(x)u $
in
$ \mathbb{R}^3 $
and the positive principal eigenvalue
$ \lambda_1(f_{\Omega}) $
of
$ -\Delta u = \lambda f_{\Omega}(x)u $
in
$ \Omega $
, we prove that at least a positive solution exists in
$ 0<\lambda\leq\lambda_1(f_{\Omega}) $
while at least two positive solutions exist in
$ \lambda>\lambda_1(f_{\Omega}) $
and near
$ \lambda_1(f_{\Omega}) $
, where
$ f_{\Omega}: = f|_{\Omega} $
. The results are obtained via variational method and steep potential. Furthermore, we also study the concentration of solutions as
$ \mu\to\infty $
and the decay rate of solutions at infinity.
Citation: Kuan-Hsiang Wang. An eigenvalue problem for nonlinear Schrödinger-Poisson system with steep potential well. Communications on Pure & Applied Analysis, 2021, 20 (4) : 1497-1519. doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2021030
References:
[1]

S. Alama and G. Tarantello, On semilinear elliptic equations with indefinite nonlinearities, Calc. Var. Partial Differ. Equ., 1 (1993), 439-475.  doi: 10.1007/BF01206962.  Google Scholar

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A. Ambrosetti and P. H. Rabinowitz, Dual variational methods in critical point theory and applications, J. Funct. Anal., 14 (1973), 349-381.  doi: 10.1016/0022-1236(73)90051-7.  Google Scholar

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T. BartschA. Pankov and Z. Q. Wang, Nonlinear Schrödinger equations with steep potential well, Commun. Contemp. Math., 3 (2001), 549-569.  doi: 10.1142/S0219199701000494.  Google Scholar

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T. Bartsch and Z. Q. Wang, Existence and multiplicity results for superlinear elliptic problems on $\mathbb{R}^3$, Commun. Partial Differ. Equ., 20 (1995), 1725-1741. doi: 10.1080/03605309508821149.  Google Scholar

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V. Benci and D. Fortunato, An eigenvalue problem for the Schrödinger-Maxwell equations, Topol. Methods Nonlinear Anal., 11 (1998), 283-293.  doi: 10.12775/TMNA.1998.019.  Google Scholar

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J. Chabrowski and D. G. Costa, On a class of Schrödinger-Type equations with indefinite weight functions, Commun. Partial Differ. Equ., 33 (2008), 1368-1394. doi: 10.1080/03605300601088880.  Google Scholar

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J. Chen, Multiple positive solutions of a class of nonautonomous Schrödinger-Poisson systems, Nonlinear Anal., 21 (2015), 13-26. doi: 10.1016/j.nonrwa.2014.06.002.  Google Scholar

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D. G. Costa and H. Tehrani, Existence of positive solutions for a class of indefinite elliptic problems in $\mathbb{R}^3$, Calc. Var. Partial Differ. Equ., 13 (2001), 159-189. doi: 10.1007/PL00009927.  Google Scholar

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T. D'Aprile and D. Mugnai, Solitary waves for nonlinear Klein-Gordon-Maxwell and Schrödinger-Maxwell equations, Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh Sect. A, 134 (2004), 893-906. doi: 10.1017/S030821050000353X.  Google Scholar

[14]

M. Du, L. Tian, J. Wang and F. Zhang, Existence and asymptotic behavior of solutions for nonlinear Schrodinger-Poisson systems with steep potential well, J. Math. Phys., 57 (2016), 031502. doi: 10.1063/1.4941036.  Google Scholar

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I. Ekeland, Convexity Methods in Hamiltonian Mechanics, Springer, 1990. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-74331-3.  Google Scholar

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L. Huang, E. M. Rocha and J. Chen, Two positive solutions of a class of Schrödinger-Poisson system with indefinite nonlinearity, J. Differ. Equ., 255 (2013), 2463-2483. doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2013.06.022.  Google Scholar

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Y. Jiang and H. Zhou, Schrödinger-Poisson system with steep potential well, J. Differ. Equ., 251 (2011), 582-608. doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2011.05.006.  Google Scholar

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P. L. Lions, The concentration-compactness principle in the calculus of variations. The locally compact case, part I, Ann. Inst. Henri Poincaré, Anal. Non Linéaire, 1 (1984), 109-145.   Google Scholar

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D. Ruiz, The Schrödinger-Poisson equation under the effect of a nonlinear local term, J. Funct. Anal., 237 (2006), 655-674. doi: 10.1016/j.jfa.2006.04.005.  Google Scholar

[20]

M. Struwe, Variational Methods. Applications to Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations and Hamiltonian Systems, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1990. doi: 10.1007/978-3-662-02624-3.  Google Scholar

[21]

Z. Shen and Z. Han, Multiple solutions for a class of Schrödinger-Poisson system with indefinite nonlinearity, J. Math. Anal. Appl., 426 (2015), 839-854. doi: 10.1016/j.jmaa.2015.01.071.  Google Scholar

[22]

J. Sun, T. F. Wu and Y. Wu, Existence of nontrivial solution for Schrödinger-Poisson systems with indefinite steep potential well, Z. Angew. Math. Phys., 68 (2017), 1-22. doi: 10.1007/s00033-017-0817-5.  Google Scholar

[23]

G. Vaira, Ground states for Schrödinger-Poisson type systems, Ricerche Math., 60 (2011), 263-297. doi: 10.1007/s11587-011-0109-x.  Google Scholar

[24]

M. Willem, Minimax Theorems, Birkhäuser, Boston, 1996. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4612-4146-1.  Google Scholar

[25]

T. F. Wu, On a class of nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equations with potential well, Adv. Nonlinear Anal., 9 (2020), 665-689. doi: 10.1515/anona-2020-0020.  Google Scholar

[26]

Y. Ye and C. Tang, Existence and multiplicity of solutions for Schrödinger-Poisson equations with sign-changing potential, Calc. Var. Partial Differ. Equ., 53 (2015), 383-411. doi: 10.1007/s00526-014-0753-6.  Google Scholar

[27]

F. Zhang and M. Du, Existence and asymptotic behavior of positive solutions for Kirchhoff type problems with steep potential well, J. Differ. Equ., 269 (2020), 85-106.  doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2020.07.013.  Google Scholar

[28]

L. Zhao, H. Liu and F. Zhao, Existence and concentration of solutions for the Schrödinger-Poisson equations with steep well potential, J. Differ. Equ., 255 (2013), 1-23. doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2013.03.005.  Google Scholar

show all references

References:
[1]

S. Alama and G. Tarantello, On semilinear elliptic equations with indefinite nonlinearities, Calc. Var. Partial Differ. Equ., 1 (1993), 439-475.  doi: 10.1007/BF01206962.  Google Scholar

[2]

A. Ambrosetti and P. H. Rabinowitz, Dual variational methods in critical point theory and applications, J. Funct. Anal., 14 (1973), 349-381.  doi: 10.1016/0022-1236(73)90051-7.  Google Scholar

[3]

A. Ambrosetti and D. Ruiz, Multiple bound states for the Schrödinger-Poisson problem, Commun. Contemp. Math., 10 (2008), 391-404.  doi: 10.1142/S021919970800282X.  Google Scholar

[4]

A. Azzollini and A. Pomponio, Ground state solutions for the nonlinear Schrödinger-Maxwell equations, J. Math. Anal. Appl., 345 (2008), 90-108.  doi: 10.1016/j.jmaa.2008.03.057.  Google Scholar

[5]

T. BartschA. Pankov and Z. Q. Wang, Nonlinear Schrödinger equations with steep potential well, Commun. Contemp. Math., 3 (2001), 549-569.  doi: 10.1142/S0219199701000494.  Google Scholar

[6]

T. Bartsch and Z. Q. Wang, Existence and multiplicity results for superlinear elliptic problems on $\mathbb{R}^3$, Commun. Partial Differ. Equ., 20 (1995), 1725-1741. doi: 10.1080/03605309508821149.  Google Scholar

[7]

V. Benci and D. Fortunato, An eigenvalue problem for the Schrödinger-Maxwell equations, Topol. Methods Nonlinear Anal., 11 (1998), 283-293.  doi: 10.12775/TMNA.1998.019.  Google Scholar

[8]

H. Brézis and E. H. Lieb, A relation between point convergence of functions and convergence of functionals, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc., 88 (1983), 486-490.  doi: 10.2307/2044999.  Google Scholar

[9]

G. Cerami and G. Vaira, Positive solution for some non-autonomous Schrödinger-Poisson systems, J. Differ. Equ., 248 (2010), 521-543.  doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2009.06.017.  Google Scholar

[10]

J. Chabrowski and D. G. Costa, On a class of Schrödinger-Type equations with indefinite weight functions, Commun. Partial Differ. Equ., 33 (2008), 1368-1394. doi: 10.1080/03605300601088880.  Google Scholar

[11]

J. Chen, Multiple positive solutions of a class of nonautonomous Schrödinger-Poisson systems, Nonlinear Anal., 21 (2015), 13-26. doi: 10.1016/j.nonrwa.2014.06.002.  Google Scholar

[12]

D. G. Costa and H. Tehrani, Existence of positive solutions for a class of indefinite elliptic problems in $\mathbb{R}^3$, Calc. Var. Partial Differ. Equ., 13 (2001), 159-189. doi: 10.1007/PL00009927.  Google Scholar

[13]

T. D'Aprile and D. Mugnai, Solitary waves for nonlinear Klein-Gordon-Maxwell and Schrödinger-Maxwell equations, Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh Sect. A, 134 (2004), 893-906. doi: 10.1017/S030821050000353X.  Google Scholar

[14]

M. Du, L. Tian, J. Wang and F. Zhang, Existence and asymptotic behavior of solutions for nonlinear Schrodinger-Poisson systems with steep potential well, J. Math. Phys., 57 (2016), 031502. doi: 10.1063/1.4941036.  Google Scholar

[15]

I. Ekeland, Convexity Methods in Hamiltonian Mechanics, Springer, 1990. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-74331-3.  Google Scholar

[16]

L. Huang, E. M. Rocha and J. Chen, Two positive solutions of a class of Schrödinger-Poisson system with indefinite nonlinearity, J. Differ. Equ., 255 (2013), 2463-2483. doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2013.06.022.  Google Scholar

[17]

Y. Jiang and H. Zhou, Schrödinger-Poisson system with steep potential well, J. Differ. Equ., 251 (2011), 582-608. doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2011.05.006.  Google Scholar

[18]

P. L. Lions, The concentration-compactness principle in the calculus of variations. The locally compact case, part I, Ann. Inst. Henri Poincaré, Anal. Non Linéaire, 1 (1984), 109-145.   Google Scholar

[19]

D. Ruiz, The Schrödinger-Poisson equation under the effect of a nonlinear local term, J. Funct. Anal., 237 (2006), 655-674. doi: 10.1016/j.jfa.2006.04.005.  Google Scholar

[20]

M. Struwe, Variational Methods. Applications to Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations and Hamiltonian Systems, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1990. doi: 10.1007/978-3-662-02624-3.  Google Scholar

[21]

Z. Shen and Z. Han, Multiple solutions for a class of Schrödinger-Poisson system with indefinite nonlinearity, J. Math. Anal. Appl., 426 (2015), 839-854. doi: 10.1016/j.jmaa.2015.01.071.  Google Scholar

[22]

J. Sun, T. F. Wu and Y. Wu, Existence of nontrivial solution for Schrödinger-Poisson systems with indefinite steep potential well, Z. Angew. Math. Phys., 68 (2017), 1-22. doi: 10.1007/s00033-017-0817-5.  Google Scholar

[23]

G. Vaira, Ground states for Schrödinger-Poisson type systems, Ricerche Math., 60 (2011), 263-297. doi: 10.1007/s11587-011-0109-x.  Google Scholar

[24]

M. Willem, Minimax Theorems, Birkhäuser, Boston, 1996. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4612-4146-1.  Google Scholar

[25]

T. F. Wu, On a class of nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equations with potential well, Adv. Nonlinear Anal., 9 (2020), 665-689. doi: 10.1515/anona-2020-0020.  Google Scholar

[26]

Y. Ye and C. Tang, Existence and multiplicity of solutions for Schrödinger-Poisson equations with sign-changing potential, Calc. Var. Partial Differ. Equ., 53 (2015), 383-411. doi: 10.1007/s00526-014-0753-6.  Google Scholar

[27]

F. Zhang and M. Du, Existence and asymptotic behavior of positive solutions for Kirchhoff type problems with steep potential well, J. Differ. Equ., 269 (2020), 85-106.  doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2020.07.013.  Google Scholar

[28]

L. Zhao, H. Liu and F. Zhao, Existence and concentration of solutions for the Schrödinger-Poisson equations with steep well potential, J. Differ. Equ., 255 (2013), 1-23. doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2013.03.005.  Google Scholar

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