November  2020, 40(11): 6247-6274. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2020277

The focusing logarithmic Schrödinger equation: Analysis of breathers and nonlinear superposition

IMAG, Univ. Montpellier, CNRS, Montpellier, France

Received  November 2019 Revised  May 2020 Published  July 2020

We consider the logarithmic Schrödinger equation in the focusing regime. For this equation, Gaussian initial data remains Gaussian. In particular, the Gausson - a time-independent Gaussian function - is an orbitally stable solution. In the general case in dimension $ d = 1 $, the solution with Gaussian initial data is periodic, and we compute some approximations of the period in the case of small and large oscillations, showing that the period can be as large as wanted for the latter. The main result of this article is a principle of nonlinear superposition: starting from an initial data made of the sum of several standing Gaussian functions far from each other, the solution remains close (in $ L^2 $) to the sum of the corresponding Gaussian solutions for a long time, in square of the distance between the Gaussian functions.

Citation: Guillaume Ferriere. The focusing logarithmic Schrödinger equation: Analysis of breathers and nonlinear superposition. Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems, 2020, 40 (11) : 6247-6274. doi: 10.3934/dcds.2020277
References:
[1]

M. A. Alejo and C. Muñoz, Nonlinear stability of MKdV breathers, Comm. Math. Phys., 324 (2013), 233-262.  doi: 10.1007/s00220-013-1792-0.

[2]

M. A. Alejo and C. Muñoz, Dynamics of complex-valued modified KdV solitons with applications to the stability of breathers, Anal. PDE, 8 (2015), 629-674.  doi: 10.2140/apde.2015.8.629.

[3]

A. H. Ardila, Orbital stability of Gausson solutions to logarithmic Schrödinger equations, Electron. J. Differential Equations, (2016), Paper No. 335, 9pp.

[4]

W. BaoR. CarlesC. Su and Q. Tang, Error estimates of a regularized finite difference method for the logarithmic {S}chrödinger equation, SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 57 (2019), 657-680.  doi: 10.1137/18M1177445.

[5]

W. BaoR. CarlesC. Su and Q. Tang, Regularized numerical methods for the logarithmic Schrödinger equation, Numer. Math., 143 (2019), 461-487.  doi: 10.1007/s00211-019-01058-2.

[6]

I. Białynicki-Birula and J. Mycielski, Nonlinear wave mechanics, Ann. Physics, 100 (1976), 62-93.  doi: 10.1016/0003-4916(76)90057-9.

[7]

H. Buljan, A. Šiber, M. Soljačić, T. Schwartz, M. Segev and D. N. Christodoulides, Incoherent white light solitons in logarithmically saturable noninstantaneous nonlinear media, Phys. Rev. E (3), 68 (2003), 036607, 6pp. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.68.036607.

[8]

R. Carles and I. Gallagher, Universal dynamics for the defocusing logarithmic Schrodinger equation, Duke Mathematical Journal, 167 (2018), 1761-1801.  doi: 10.1215/00127094-2018-0006.

[9]

T. Cazenave, Stable solutions of the logarithmic Schrödinger equation, Nonlinear Anal., 7 (1983), 1127-1140.  doi: 10.1016/0362-546X(83)90022-6.

[10]

T. Cazenave, Semilinear Schrödinger equations, vol. 10 of Courant Lecture Notes in Mathematics, New York University, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York; American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 2003. doi: 10.1090/cln/010.

[11]

T. Cazenave and A. Haraux, Équations d'évolution avec non linéarité logarithmique, Ann. Fac. Sci. Toulouse Math. (5), 2 (1980), 21–51. doi: 10.5802/afst.543.

[12]

S.-M. ChangS. GustafsonK. Nakanishi and T.-P. Tsai, Spectra of linearized operators for NLS solitary waves, SIAM J. Math. Anal., 39 (2007/08), 1070-1111.  doi: 10.1137/050648389.

[13]

G. Chen and J. Liu, Soliton resolution for the modified KdV equation, 2019, arXiv: 1907.07115, Preprint.

[14]

R. Côte and S. Le Coz, High-speed excited multi-solitons in nonlinear Schrödinger equations, J. Math. Pures Appl. (9), 96 (2011), 135–166. doi: 10.1016/j.matpur.2011.03.004.

[15]

R. CôteY. Martel and F. Merle, Construction of multi-soliton solutions for the $L^2$-supercritical gKdV and NLS equations, Rev. Mat. Iberoam., 27 (2011), 273-302. 

[16]

P. d'Avenia, E. Montefusco and M. Squassina, On the logarithmic {S}chrödinger equation, Commun. Contemp. Math., 16 (2014), 1350032, 15pp. doi: 10.1142/S0219199713500326.

[17]

S. De MartinoM. FalangaC. Godano and G. Lauro, Logarithmic schrödinger-like equation as a model for magma transport, EPL (Europhysics Letters), 63 (2003), 472-475.  doi: 10.1209/epl/i2003-00547-6.

[18]

G. Ferriere, Existence of multi-solitons for the focusing logarithmic Schrödinger equation, arXiv: 2003.02571, Preprint.

[19]

G. Ferriere, Convergence rate in Wasserstein distance and semiclassical limit for the defocusing logarithmic Schrödinger equation, Analysis & PDE, to appear.

[20]

M. Grillakis, Existence of nodal solutions of semilinear equations in ${\bf{R}}^N$, J. Differential Equations, 85 (1990), 367-400.  doi: 10.1016/0022-0396(90)90121-5.

[21]

M. Grillakis, Linearized instability for nonlinear Schrödinger and Klein-Gordon equations, Comm. Pure Appl. Math., 41 (1988), 747-774.  doi: 10.1002/cpa.3160410602.

[22]

P. GuerreroJ. L. López and J. Nieto, Global $H^1$ solvability of the 3D logarithmic Schrödinger equation, Nonlinear Anal. Real World Appl., 11 (2010), 79-87.  doi: 10.1016/j.nonrwa.2008.10.017.

[23]

E. F. Hefter, Application of the nonlinear schrödinger equation with a logarithmic inhomogeneous term to nuclear physics, Phys. Rev. A, 32 (1985), 1201-1204.  doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.32.1201.

[24]

E. Hernández and B. Remaud, General properties of gausson-conserving descriptions of quantal damped motion, Phys. A, 105 (1981), 130-146.  doi: 10.1016/0378-4371(81)90066-2.

[25]

C. K. R. T. Jones, An instability mechanism for radially symmetric standing waves of a nonlinear {S}chrödinger equation, J. Differential Equations, 71 (1988), 34-62.  doi: 10.1016/0022-0396(88)90037-X.

[26]

W. KrólikowskiD. Edmundson and O. Bang, Unified model for partially coherent solitons in logarithmically nonlinear media, Phys. Rev. E, 61 (2000), 3122-3126.  doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.61.3122.

[27]

Y. Martel and F. Merle, Multi solitary waves for nonlinear Schrödinger equations, Ann. Inst. H. Poincaré Anal. Non Linéaire, 23 (2006), 849-864.  doi: 10.1016/j.anihpc.2006.01.001.

[28]

Y. MartelF. Merle and T.-P. Tsai, Stability and asymptotic stability in the energy space of the sum of $N$ solitons for subcritical gKdV equations, Comm. Math. Phys., 231 (2002), 347-373.  doi: 10.1007/s00220-002-0723-2.

[29]

Y. MartelF. Merle and T.-P. Tsai, Stability in $H^1$ of the sum of $K$ solitary waves for some nonlinear Schrödinger equations, Duke Math. J., 133 (2006), 405-466.  doi: 10.1215/S0012-7094-06-13331-8.

[30]

R. M. Miura, The Korteweg-de Vries equation: A survey of results, SIAM Rev., 18 (1976), 412-459.  doi: 10.1137/1018076.

[31]

T. Mizumachi, Instability of bound states for 2D nonlinear Schrödinger equations, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst., 13 (2005), 413-428.  doi: 10.3934/dcds.2005.13.413.

[32]

T. Mizumachi, Vortex solitons for 2D focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation, Differential Integral Equations, 18 (2005), 431-450. 

[33]

T. Mizumachi, Instability of vortex solitons for 2D focusing NLS, Adv. Differential Equations, 12 (2007), 241-264. 

[34]

Z. Opial, Sur les périodes des solutions de l'équation différentielle $x{\prime\prime}+g(x) = 0$, Ann. Polon. Math., 10 (1961), 49-72.  doi: 10.4064/ap-10-1-49-72.

[35]

W. Walter, Ordinary Differential Equations, vol. 182 of Graduate Texts in Mathematics, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1998, Translated from the sixth German (1996) edition by Russell Thompson, Readings in Mathematics. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4612-0601-9.

[36]

V. E. Zakharov and A. B. Shabat, Exact theory of two-dimensional self-focusing and one-dimensional self-modulation of waves in nonlinear media, Ž. Èksper. Teoret. Fiz., 61 (1971), 118–134.

show all references

References:
[1]

M. A. Alejo and C. Muñoz, Nonlinear stability of MKdV breathers, Comm. Math. Phys., 324 (2013), 233-262.  doi: 10.1007/s00220-013-1792-0.

[2]

M. A. Alejo and C. Muñoz, Dynamics of complex-valued modified KdV solitons with applications to the stability of breathers, Anal. PDE, 8 (2015), 629-674.  doi: 10.2140/apde.2015.8.629.

[3]

A. H. Ardila, Orbital stability of Gausson solutions to logarithmic Schrödinger equations, Electron. J. Differential Equations, (2016), Paper No. 335, 9pp.

[4]

W. BaoR. CarlesC. Su and Q. Tang, Error estimates of a regularized finite difference method for the logarithmic {S}chrödinger equation, SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 57 (2019), 657-680.  doi: 10.1137/18M1177445.

[5]

W. BaoR. CarlesC. Su and Q. Tang, Regularized numerical methods for the logarithmic Schrödinger equation, Numer. Math., 143 (2019), 461-487.  doi: 10.1007/s00211-019-01058-2.

[6]

I. Białynicki-Birula and J. Mycielski, Nonlinear wave mechanics, Ann. Physics, 100 (1976), 62-93.  doi: 10.1016/0003-4916(76)90057-9.

[7]

H. Buljan, A. Šiber, M. Soljačić, T. Schwartz, M. Segev and D. N. Christodoulides, Incoherent white light solitons in logarithmically saturable noninstantaneous nonlinear media, Phys. Rev. E (3), 68 (2003), 036607, 6pp. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.68.036607.

[8]

R. Carles and I. Gallagher, Universal dynamics for the defocusing logarithmic Schrodinger equation, Duke Mathematical Journal, 167 (2018), 1761-1801.  doi: 10.1215/00127094-2018-0006.

[9]

T. Cazenave, Stable solutions of the logarithmic Schrödinger equation, Nonlinear Anal., 7 (1983), 1127-1140.  doi: 10.1016/0362-546X(83)90022-6.

[10]

T. Cazenave, Semilinear Schrödinger equations, vol. 10 of Courant Lecture Notes in Mathematics, New York University, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York; American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 2003. doi: 10.1090/cln/010.

[11]

T. Cazenave and A. Haraux, Équations d'évolution avec non linéarité logarithmique, Ann. Fac. Sci. Toulouse Math. (5), 2 (1980), 21–51. doi: 10.5802/afst.543.

[12]

S.-M. ChangS. GustafsonK. Nakanishi and T.-P. Tsai, Spectra of linearized operators for NLS solitary waves, SIAM J. Math. Anal., 39 (2007/08), 1070-1111.  doi: 10.1137/050648389.

[13]

G. Chen and J. Liu, Soliton resolution for the modified KdV equation, 2019, arXiv: 1907.07115, Preprint.

[14]

R. Côte and S. Le Coz, High-speed excited multi-solitons in nonlinear Schrödinger equations, J. Math. Pures Appl. (9), 96 (2011), 135–166. doi: 10.1016/j.matpur.2011.03.004.

[15]

R. CôteY. Martel and F. Merle, Construction of multi-soliton solutions for the $L^2$-supercritical gKdV and NLS equations, Rev. Mat. Iberoam., 27 (2011), 273-302. 

[16]

P. d'Avenia, E. Montefusco and M. Squassina, On the logarithmic {S}chrödinger equation, Commun. Contemp. Math., 16 (2014), 1350032, 15pp. doi: 10.1142/S0219199713500326.

[17]

S. De MartinoM. FalangaC. Godano and G. Lauro, Logarithmic schrödinger-like equation as a model for magma transport, EPL (Europhysics Letters), 63 (2003), 472-475.  doi: 10.1209/epl/i2003-00547-6.

[18]

G. Ferriere, Existence of multi-solitons for the focusing logarithmic Schrödinger equation, arXiv: 2003.02571, Preprint.

[19]

G. Ferriere, Convergence rate in Wasserstein distance and semiclassical limit for the defocusing logarithmic Schrödinger equation, Analysis & PDE, to appear.

[20]

M. Grillakis, Existence of nodal solutions of semilinear equations in ${\bf{R}}^N$, J. Differential Equations, 85 (1990), 367-400.  doi: 10.1016/0022-0396(90)90121-5.

[21]

M. Grillakis, Linearized instability for nonlinear Schrödinger and Klein-Gordon equations, Comm. Pure Appl. Math., 41 (1988), 747-774.  doi: 10.1002/cpa.3160410602.

[22]

P. GuerreroJ. L. López and J. Nieto, Global $H^1$ solvability of the 3D logarithmic Schrödinger equation, Nonlinear Anal. Real World Appl., 11 (2010), 79-87.  doi: 10.1016/j.nonrwa.2008.10.017.

[23]

E. F. Hefter, Application of the nonlinear schrödinger equation with a logarithmic inhomogeneous term to nuclear physics, Phys. Rev. A, 32 (1985), 1201-1204.  doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.32.1201.

[24]

E. Hernández and B. Remaud, General properties of gausson-conserving descriptions of quantal damped motion, Phys. A, 105 (1981), 130-146.  doi: 10.1016/0378-4371(81)90066-2.

[25]

C. K. R. T. Jones, An instability mechanism for radially symmetric standing waves of a nonlinear {S}chrödinger equation, J. Differential Equations, 71 (1988), 34-62.  doi: 10.1016/0022-0396(88)90037-X.

[26]

W. KrólikowskiD. Edmundson and O. Bang, Unified model for partially coherent solitons in logarithmically nonlinear media, Phys. Rev. E, 61 (2000), 3122-3126.  doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.61.3122.

[27]

Y. Martel and F. Merle, Multi solitary waves for nonlinear Schrödinger equations, Ann. Inst. H. Poincaré Anal. Non Linéaire, 23 (2006), 849-864.  doi: 10.1016/j.anihpc.2006.01.001.

[28]

Y. MartelF. Merle and T.-P. Tsai, Stability and asymptotic stability in the energy space of the sum of $N$ solitons for subcritical gKdV equations, Comm. Math. Phys., 231 (2002), 347-373.  doi: 10.1007/s00220-002-0723-2.

[29]

Y. MartelF. Merle and T.-P. Tsai, Stability in $H^1$ of the sum of $K$ solitary waves for some nonlinear Schrödinger equations, Duke Math. J., 133 (2006), 405-466.  doi: 10.1215/S0012-7094-06-13331-8.

[30]

R. M. Miura, The Korteweg-de Vries equation: A survey of results, SIAM Rev., 18 (1976), 412-459.  doi: 10.1137/1018076.

[31]

T. Mizumachi, Instability of bound states for 2D nonlinear Schrödinger equations, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst., 13 (2005), 413-428.  doi: 10.3934/dcds.2005.13.413.

[32]

T. Mizumachi, Vortex solitons for 2D focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation, Differential Integral Equations, 18 (2005), 431-450. 

[33]

T. Mizumachi, Instability of vortex solitons for 2D focusing NLS, Adv. Differential Equations, 12 (2007), 241-264. 

[34]

Z. Opial, Sur les périodes des solutions de l'équation différentielle $x{\prime\prime}+g(x) = 0$, Ann. Polon. Math., 10 (1961), 49-72.  doi: 10.4064/ap-10-1-49-72.

[35]

W. Walter, Ordinary Differential Equations, vol. 182 of Graduate Texts in Mathematics, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1998, Translated from the sixth German (1996) edition by Russell Thompson, Readings in Mathematics. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4612-0601-9.

[36]

V. E. Zakharov and A. B. Shabat, Exact theory of two-dimensional self-focusing and one-dimensional self-modulation of waves in nonlinear media, Ž. Èksper. Teoret. Fiz., 61 (1971), 118–134.

Figure 1.  Phase portraits. At the left-hand side, the arrows give the direction of the flow; the green and magenta lines are the horizontal and vertical isoclines respectively; the red lines are some trajectories, which fits the level set of $ H(p, q) $. At the right-hand side, a part of some trajectories are drawn along with the isoclines again
Figure 2.  Plot of some trajectories of $ \tau_\gamma $ in the phase space for 5 real $ \gamma $ between $ 10 $ and $ 50 $
Figure 3.  Plot of the breather ($ \lambda = 0.5 $) with initial data $ \exp \Bigl( \frac{1}{2} - \delta x^2 \Bigr) $ with $ \delta^{-1} = 2 \times 35^2 $. The first "peak" is at $ t = 43.86 $
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