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  • Stochasticity, sometimes referred to as noise, is unavoidable in biological systems. Noise, which exists at all biological scales ranging from gene expressions to ecosystems, can be detrimental or sometimes beneficial by performing unexpected tasks to improve biological functions. Often, the complexity of biological systems is a consequence of dealing with uncertainty and noise, and thus, consideration of noise is necessary in mathematical models. Recent advancement of technology allows experimental measurement on stochastic effects, showing multifaceted and perplexed roles of noise. As interrogating internal or external noise becomes possible experimentally, new models and mathematical theory are needed. Over the past few decades, stochastic analysis and the theory of nonautonomous and random dynamical systems have started to show their strong promise and relevance in studying complex biological systems. This special issue represents a collection of recent advances in this emerging research area.

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