December  2018, 23(10): 4557-4578. doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2018176

A reaction-diffusion-advection SIS epidemic model in a spatially-temporally heterogeneous environment

School of Mathematics and Statistics, Lanzhou University, and Key Laboratory of Applied Mathematics and Complex Systems of Gansu province, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China

* Corresponding author: Zhi-Cheng Wang

Received  September 2017 Revised  February 2018 Published  December 2018 Early access  June 2018

In this paper, we study the effects of diffusion and advection for an SIS epidemic reaction-diffusion-advection model in a spatially and temporally heterogeneous environment. We introduce the basic reproduction number $\mathcal{R}_{0}$ and establish the threshold-type results on the global dynamics in terms of $\mathcal{R}_{0}$. Some general qualitative properties of $\mathcal{R}_{0}$ are presented, then the paper is devoted to studying how the advection and diffusion of the infected individuals affect the reproduction number $\mathcal{R}_{0}$ for the special case that $γ(x,t)-β(x,t) = V(x,t)$ is monotone with respect to spatial variable $x$. Our results suggest that if $V_{x}(x,t)≥0,\not\equiv0$ and $V(x, t)$ changes sign about $x$, the advection is beneficial to eliminate the disease, whereas if $V_{x}(x,t)≤0,\not\equiv0$ and $V(x, t)$ changes sign about $x$, the advection is bad for the elimination of disease.

Citation: Danhua Jiang, Zhi-Cheng Wang, Liang Zhang. A reaction-diffusion-advection SIS epidemic model in a spatially-temporally heterogeneous environment. Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems - B, 2018, 23 (10) : 4557-4578. doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2018176
References:
[1]

N. D. Alikakos, An application of the invariance principle to reaction-diffusion equations, J. Differential Equations, 33 (1979), 201-225.  doi: 10.1016/0022-0396(79)90088-3.

[2]

L. J. S. AllenB. M. BolkerY. Lou and A. L. Nevai, Asymptotic profiles of the steady states for an SIS epidemic disease patch model, SIAM J. Appl. Math., 67 (2007), 1283-1309.  doi: 10.1137/060672522.

[3]

L. J. S. AllenB. M. BolkerY. Lou and A. L. Nevai, Asymptotic profiles of the steady states for an SIS epidemic reaction-diffusion model, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst., 21 (2008), 1-20.  doi: 10.3934/dcds.2008.21.1.

[4]

R. Cui and Y. Lou, A spatial SIS model in advective heterogeneous environments, J. Differential Equations, 261 (2016), 3305-3343.  doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2016.05.025.

[5]

R. CuiK.-Y. Lam and Y. Lou, Dynamics and asymptotic profiles of steady states of an epidemic model in advective environments, J. Differential Equations, 263 (2017), 2343-2373.  doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2017.03.045.

[6]

K. A. DahmenD. R. Nelson and N. M. Shnerb, Life and death near a windy oasis, J. Math. Biol., 41 (2000), 1-23.  doi: 10.1007/s002850000025.

[7]

J. GeK. I. KimZ.-G. Lin and H.-P. Zhu, An SIS reaction-diffusion-advection model in a low-risk and high-risk domain, J. Differential Equations, 259 (2015), 5486-5509.  doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2015.06.035.

[8]

J. K. Hale, Asymptotic Behavior of Dissipative Systems, Mathematical Surveys and Monographs, vol. 25, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 1988. doi: 10.1090/surv/025.

[9]

D. Henry, Geometric Theory of Semilinear Parabolic Equations, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, vol. 840, Springer-Verlag, Berlin-New York, 1981. doi: 10.1007/BFb0089647.

[10]

P. Hess, Periodic-parabolic Boundary Value Problems and Positivity,, Pitman Res. Notes Math., vol. 247, Longman Scientific & Technical, Harlow, 1991.

[11]

W. HuangM. Han and K. Liu, Dynamics of an SIS reaction-diffusion epidemic model for disease transmission, Math. Biosci. Eng., 7 (2010), 51-66.  doi: 10.3934/mbe.2010.7.51.

[12]

T. Kato, Perturbation Theory for Linear Operators, Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., New York, 1966.

[13]

H.-C. LiR. Peng and F.-B. Wang, Varying total population enhances disease persistence: Qualitative analysis on a diffusive SIS epidemic model, J. Differential Equations, 262 (2017), 885-913.  doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2016.09.044.

[14]

F. LutscherM. A. Lewis and E. McCauley, Effects of heterogeneity on spread and persistence in rivers, Bull. Math. Biol., 68 (2006), 2129-2160.  doi: 10.1007/s11538-006-9100-1.

[15]

F. LutscherE. McCauley and M. A. Lewis, Spatial patterns and coexistence mechanisms in systems with unidirectional flow, Theor. Popul. Biol., 71 (2007), 267-277.  doi: 10.1016/j.tpb.2006.11.006.

[16]

F. LutscherE. Pachepsky and M. A. Lewis, The effect of dispersal patterns on stream populations, SIAM Rev., 47 (2005), 749-772.  doi: 10.1137/050636152.

[17]

P. Magal and X.-Q. Zhao, Global attractors and steady states for uniformly persistent dynamical systems, SIAM J. Math. Anal., 37 (2005), 251-275.  doi: 10.1137/S0036141003439173.

[18]

R. Peng, Asymptotic profiles of the positive steady state for an SIS epidemic reaction-diffusion model. Ⅰ, J. Differential Equations, 247 (2009), 1096-1119.  doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2009.05.002.

[19]

R. Peng and S.-Q. Liu, Global stability of the steady states of an SIS epidemic reaction-diffusion model, Nonlinear Anal., 71 (2009), 239-247.  doi: 10.1016/j.na.2008.10.043.

[20]

R. Peng and F.-Q. Yi, Asymptotic profile of the positive steady state for an SIS epidemic reaction-diffusion model: effects of epidemic risk and population movement, Phys. D, 259 (2013), 8-25.  doi: 10.1016/j.physd.2013.05.006.

[21]

R. Peng and X.-Q. Zhao, A reaction-diffusion SIS epidemic model in a time-periodic environment, Nonlinearity, 25 (2012), 1451-1471.  doi: 10.1088/0951-7715/25/5/1451.

[22]

R. Peng and X.-Q. Zhao, Effects of diffusion and advection on the principal eigenvalue of a periodic parabolic problem with applications, Calc. Var. Partial Differential Equations, 54 (2015), 1611-1642.  doi: 10.1007/s00526-015-0838-x.

[23]

M. H. Protter and H. F. Weinberger, Maximum Principles in Differential Equations, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4612-5282-5.

[24]

H. L. Smith, Monotone Dynamical Systems: An Introduction to the Theory of Competitive and Cooperative Systems, Math. Surveys Monogr., vol. 41, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 1995.

[25]

W. Wang and X.-Q. Zhao, Threshold dynamics for compartmental epidemic models in periodic environments, J. Dynam. Differential. Equations, 20 (2008), 699-717.  doi: 10.1007/s10884-008-9111-8.

[26]

W. Wang and X.-Q. Zhao, A nonlocal and time-delayed reaction-diffusion model of Dengue transmission, SIAM J. Appl. Math., 71 (2011), 147-168.  doi: 10.1137/090775890.

[27]

X.-Q. Zhao, Uniform persistence and periodic coexistence states in infinite-dimensional periodic semiflows with applications, Canad. Appl. Math. Quart., 3 (1995), 473-495. 

[28]

X.-Q. Zhao, Dynamical Systems in Population Biology, Springer-Verlag, New York, 2003. doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-21761-1.

show all references

References:
[1]

N. D. Alikakos, An application of the invariance principle to reaction-diffusion equations, J. Differential Equations, 33 (1979), 201-225.  doi: 10.1016/0022-0396(79)90088-3.

[2]

L. J. S. AllenB. M. BolkerY. Lou and A. L. Nevai, Asymptotic profiles of the steady states for an SIS epidemic disease patch model, SIAM J. Appl. Math., 67 (2007), 1283-1309.  doi: 10.1137/060672522.

[3]

L. J. S. AllenB. M. BolkerY. Lou and A. L. Nevai, Asymptotic profiles of the steady states for an SIS epidemic reaction-diffusion model, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst., 21 (2008), 1-20.  doi: 10.3934/dcds.2008.21.1.

[4]

R. Cui and Y. Lou, A spatial SIS model in advective heterogeneous environments, J. Differential Equations, 261 (2016), 3305-3343.  doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2016.05.025.

[5]

R. CuiK.-Y. Lam and Y. Lou, Dynamics and asymptotic profiles of steady states of an epidemic model in advective environments, J. Differential Equations, 263 (2017), 2343-2373.  doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2017.03.045.

[6]

K. A. DahmenD. R. Nelson and N. M. Shnerb, Life and death near a windy oasis, J. Math. Biol., 41 (2000), 1-23.  doi: 10.1007/s002850000025.

[7]

J. GeK. I. KimZ.-G. Lin and H.-P. Zhu, An SIS reaction-diffusion-advection model in a low-risk and high-risk domain, J. Differential Equations, 259 (2015), 5486-5509.  doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2015.06.035.

[8]

J. K. Hale, Asymptotic Behavior of Dissipative Systems, Mathematical Surveys and Monographs, vol. 25, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 1988. doi: 10.1090/surv/025.

[9]

D. Henry, Geometric Theory of Semilinear Parabolic Equations, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, vol. 840, Springer-Verlag, Berlin-New York, 1981. doi: 10.1007/BFb0089647.

[10]

P. Hess, Periodic-parabolic Boundary Value Problems and Positivity,, Pitman Res. Notes Math., vol. 247, Longman Scientific & Technical, Harlow, 1991.

[11]

W. HuangM. Han and K. Liu, Dynamics of an SIS reaction-diffusion epidemic model for disease transmission, Math. Biosci. Eng., 7 (2010), 51-66.  doi: 10.3934/mbe.2010.7.51.

[12]

T. Kato, Perturbation Theory for Linear Operators, Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., New York, 1966.

[13]

H.-C. LiR. Peng and F.-B. Wang, Varying total population enhances disease persistence: Qualitative analysis on a diffusive SIS epidemic model, J. Differential Equations, 262 (2017), 885-913.  doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2016.09.044.

[14]

F. LutscherM. A. Lewis and E. McCauley, Effects of heterogeneity on spread and persistence in rivers, Bull. Math. Biol., 68 (2006), 2129-2160.  doi: 10.1007/s11538-006-9100-1.

[15]

F. LutscherE. McCauley and M. A. Lewis, Spatial patterns and coexistence mechanisms in systems with unidirectional flow, Theor. Popul. Biol., 71 (2007), 267-277.  doi: 10.1016/j.tpb.2006.11.006.

[16]

F. LutscherE. Pachepsky and M. A. Lewis, The effect of dispersal patterns on stream populations, SIAM Rev., 47 (2005), 749-772.  doi: 10.1137/050636152.

[17]

P. Magal and X.-Q. Zhao, Global attractors and steady states for uniformly persistent dynamical systems, SIAM J. Math. Anal., 37 (2005), 251-275.  doi: 10.1137/S0036141003439173.

[18]

R. Peng, Asymptotic profiles of the positive steady state for an SIS epidemic reaction-diffusion model. Ⅰ, J. Differential Equations, 247 (2009), 1096-1119.  doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2009.05.002.

[19]

R. Peng and S.-Q. Liu, Global stability of the steady states of an SIS epidemic reaction-diffusion model, Nonlinear Anal., 71 (2009), 239-247.  doi: 10.1016/j.na.2008.10.043.

[20]

R. Peng and F.-Q. Yi, Asymptotic profile of the positive steady state for an SIS epidemic reaction-diffusion model: effects of epidemic risk and population movement, Phys. D, 259 (2013), 8-25.  doi: 10.1016/j.physd.2013.05.006.

[21]

R. Peng and X.-Q. Zhao, A reaction-diffusion SIS epidemic model in a time-periodic environment, Nonlinearity, 25 (2012), 1451-1471.  doi: 10.1088/0951-7715/25/5/1451.

[22]

R. Peng and X.-Q. Zhao, Effects of diffusion and advection on the principal eigenvalue of a periodic parabolic problem with applications, Calc. Var. Partial Differential Equations, 54 (2015), 1611-1642.  doi: 10.1007/s00526-015-0838-x.

[23]

M. H. Protter and H. F. Weinberger, Maximum Principles in Differential Equations, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4612-5282-5.

[24]

H. L. Smith, Monotone Dynamical Systems: An Introduction to the Theory of Competitive and Cooperative Systems, Math. Surveys Monogr., vol. 41, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 1995.

[25]

W. Wang and X.-Q. Zhao, Threshold dynamics for compartmental epidemic models in periodic environments, J. Dynam. Differential. Equations, 20 (2008), 699-717.  doi: 10.1007/s10884-008-9111-8.

[26]

W. Wang and X.-Q. Zhao, A nonlocal and time-delayed reaction-diffusion model of Dengue transmission, SIAM J. Appl. Math., 71 (2011), 147-168.  doi: 10.1137/090775890.

[27]

X.-Q. Zhao, Uniform persistence and periodic coexistence states in infinite-dimensional periodic semiflows with applications, Canad. Appl. Math. Quart., 3 (1995), 473-495. 

[28]

X.-Q. Zhao, Dynamical Systems in Population Biology, Springer-Verlag, New York, 2003. doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-21761-1.

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