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Singular perturbations and scaling

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  • Scaling transformations involving a small parameter (degenerate scalings) are frequently used for ordinary differential equations that model chemical reaction networks. They are motivated by quasi-steady state (QSS) of certain chemical species, and ideally lead to slow-fast systems for singular perturbation reductions, in the sense of Tikhonov and Fenichel. In the present paper we discuss properties of such scaling transformations, with regard to their applicability as well as to their determination. Transformations of this type are admissible only when certain consistency conditions are satisfied, and they lead to singular perturbation scenarios only if additional conditions hold, including a further consistency condition on initial values. Given these consistency conditions, two scenarios occur. The first (which we call standard) is well known and corresponds to a classical quasi-steady state (QSS) reduction. Here, scaling may actually be omitted because there exists a singular perturbation reduction for the unscaled system, with a coordinate subspace as critical manifold. For the second (nonstandard) scenario scaling is crucial. Here one may obtain a singular perturbation reduction with the slow manifold having dimension greater than expected from the scaling. For parameter dependent systems we consider the problem to find all possible scalings, and we show that requiring the consistency conditions allows their determination. This lays the groundwork for algorithmic approaches, to be taken up in future work. In the final section we consider some applications. In particular we discuss relevant nonstandard reductions of certain reaction-transport systems.

    Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary: 92C45, 34E15; Secondary: 80A30, 13P10.

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