# American Institute of Mathematical Sciences

October  2020, 25(10): 3807-3830. doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2020229

## Higher-order time-stepping schemes for fluid-structure interaction problems

 1 Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia 2 Dipartimento di Matematica "F. Casorati", University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy 3 DICATAM, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy 4 Technische Universität München (TUM), München, Germany

* Corresponding author: Daniele Boffi

Received  June 2019 Revised  March 2020 Published  October 2020 Early access  July 2020

We consider a recently introduced formulation for fluid-structure interaction problems which makes use of a distributed Lagrange multiplier in the spirit of the fictitious domain method. In this paper we focus on time integration methods of second order based on backward differentiation formulae and on the Crank–Nicolson method. We show the stability properties of the resulting method; numerical tests confirm the theoretical results.

Citation: Daniele Boffi, Lucia Gastaldi, Sebastian Wolf. Higher-order time-stepping schemes for fluid-structure interaction problems. Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems - B, 2020, 25 (10) : 3807-3830. doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2020229
##### References:
 [1] D. Boffi, N. Cavallini, F. Gardini and L. Gastaldi, Local mass conservation of Stokes finite elements, J. Sci. Comput., 52 (2012), 383-400.  doi: 10.1007/s10915-011-9549-4. [2] D. Boffi, N. Cavallini and L. Gastaldi, Finite element approach to immersed boundary method with different fluid and solid densities, Math. Models Methods Appl. Sci, 21 (2011), 2523-2550.  doi: 10.1142/S0218202511005829. [3] D. Boffi, N. Cavallini and L. Gastaldi, The finite element immersed boundary method with distributed lagrange multiplier, SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 53 (2015), 2584-2604.  doi: 10.1137/140978399. [4] D. Boffi and L. Gastaldi, Discrete models for fluid-structure interactions: The Finite Element Immersed Boundary Method, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst., Ser. S, 9 (2016), 89-107.  doi: 10.3934/dcdss.2016.9.89. [5] D. Boffi and L. Gastaldi, A fictious domain approach with distributed lagrange multipliers for fluid-structure interactions, Numer. Math., 135 (2017), 711-732.  doi: 10.1007/s00211-016-0814-1. [6] D. Boffi, L. Gastaldi and L. Heltai, Numerical stability of the finite element immersed boundary method, Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences, 17 (2007), 1479-1505.  doi: 10.1142/S0218202507002352. [7] D. Boffi, L. Gastaldi and L. Heltai, A distributed Lagrange formulation of the finite element immersed boundary method for fluids interacting with compressible solids, in Mathematical and Numerical Modeling of the Cardiovascular System and Applications (eds. B. D., P. L., R. G., S. S. and V. C.), vol. 16 of SEMA SIMAI Springer Series, Springer, 2018, 1–21, URL https://arXiv.org/abs/1712.02545. [8] D. Boffi, L. Gastaldi, L. Heltai and C. S. Peskin, On the hyper-elastic formulation of the immersed boundary method, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 197 (2008), 2210-2231.  doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2007.09.015. [9] M. Boulakia and S. Guerrero, On the interaction problem between a compressible fluid and a Saint–Venant Kirchoff elastic structure, Adv. Differential Equations, 22 (2017), 1-48. [10] M. Boulakia, S. Guerrero and T. Takahashi, Well-posedness for the coupling between a viscous incompressible fluid and an elastic structure, Nonlinearity, 32 (2019), 3548-3592.  doi: 10.1088/1361-6544/ab128c. [11] W. Chen, M. Gunzburger, D. Sun and X. Wang, Efficient and long-time accurate second-order methods for Stokes-Darcy Systems, SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 51 (2013), 2563-2584.  doi: 10.1137/120897705. [12] C. Coutand and S. Shloller, Motion of an elastic solid inside an incompressible fluid-structure interaction, Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal., 176 (2005), 25-102.  doi: 10.1007/s00205-004-0340-7. [13] C. Coutand and S. Shloller, The interaction between quasilinear elastidynamics and the Navier–Stokes equations, Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal., 179 (2006), 303-352.  doi: 10.1007/s00205-005-0385-2. [14] P. Deuflhard and F. Bornemann, Numerische Mathematik 2, revised edition, de Gruyter Lehrbuch. [de Gruyter Textbook], Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin, 2008, Gewöhnliche Differentialgleichungen. [Ordinary differential equations]. [15] S. Dong, BDF-like methods for nonlinear dynamic analysis, J. Comput. Phys., 229 (2010), 3019-3045.  doi: 10.1016/j.jcp.2009.12.028. [16] B. E. Griffith, On the volume conservation of the immersed boundary method, Commun. Comput. Phys., 12 (2012), 401-432.  doi: 10.4208/cicp.120111.300911s. [17] B. E. Griffith and X. Luo, Hybrid finite difference/finite element immersed boundary method, Int. J. Numer. Meth. Biomed. Engng., 33 (2017), e2888, 31pp. doi: 10.1002/cnm.2888. [18] L. Heltai and F. Costanzo, Variational implementation of immersed finite element methods, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 229/232 (2012), 110-127.  doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2012.04.001. [19] J. Heywood and R. Rannacher, Finite-element approximation of the nonstationary navier–stokes problem. part iv: error analysis for second-order time discretization, SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 27 (1990), 353-384.  doi: 10.1137/0727022. [20] O. R. Isik, G. Yuksel and B. Demir, Analysis of second order and unconditionally stable BDF2-AB2 method for the Navier-Stokes equations with nonlinear time relaxation, Numer. Methods Partial Differ. Equations, 34 (2017), 2060-2078.  doi: 10.1002/num.22276. [21] V. John, Finite Element Methods for Incompressible Flow Problems, Springer, 2016. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-45750-5. [22] Y. Okamoto, K. Fujiwara and Y. Ishihara, Effectiveness of higher order time integration in time-domain finite-element analysis, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 46 (2010), 3321-3324.  doi: 10.1109/TMAG.2010.2044771. [23] C. S. Peskin, The immersed boundary method, Acta Numerica, 11 (2002), 479-517.  doi: 10.1017/S0962492902000077. [24] J.-P. Raymond and M. Vanninathan, A fluid-structure model coupling the Navier–Sstokes equations and the Lamé system, J. Mat. Pura Appl., 102 (2014), 546-596.  doi: 10.1016/j.matpur.2013.12.004. [25] S. Roy, L. Heltai and F. Costanzo, Benchmarking the immersed finite element method for fluid-structure interaction problems, Comput. Math. Appl., 69 (2015), 1167–1188. doi: 10.1016/j.camwa.2015.03.012. [26] X. Wang and L. T. Zhang, Interpolation functions in the immersed boundary and finite element methods, Comput. Mech., 45 (2009), 321. doi: 10.1007/s00466-009-0449-5.

show all references

##### References:
 [1] D. Boffi, N. Cavallini, F. Gardini and L. Gastaldi, Local mass conservation of Stokes finite elements, J. Sci. Comput., 52 (2012), 383-400.  doi: 10.1007/s10915-011-9549-4. [2] D. Boffi, N. Cavallini and L. Gastaldi, Finite element approach to immersed boundary method with different fluid and solid densities, Math. Models Methods Appl. Sci, 21 (2011), 2523-2550.  doi: 10.1142/S0218202511005829. [3] D. Boffi, N. Cavallini and L. Gastaldi, The finite element immersed boundary method with distributed lagrange multiplier, SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 53 (2015), 2584-2604.  doi: 10.1137/140978399. [4] D. Boffi and L. Gastaldi, Discrete models for fluid-structure interactions: The Finite Element Immersed Boundary Method, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst., Ser. S, 9 (2016), 89-107.  doi: 10.3934/dcdss.2016.9.89. [5] D. Boffi and L. Gastaldi, A fictious domain approach with distributed lagrange multipliers for fluid-structure interactions, Numer. Math., 135 (2017), 711-732.  doi: 10.1007/s00211-016-0814-1. [6] D. Boffi, L. Gastaldi and L. Heltai, Numerical stability of the finite element immersed boundary method, Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences, 17 (2007), 1479-1505.  doi: 10.1142/S0218202507002352. [7] D. Boffi, L. Gastaldi and L. Heltai, A distributed Lagrange formulation of the finite element immersed boundary method for fluids interacting with compressible solids, in Mathematical and Numerical Modeling of the Cardiovascular System and Applications (eds. B. D., P. L., R. G., S. S. and V. C.), vol. 16 of SEMA SIMAI Springer Series, Springer, 2018, 1–21, URL https://arXiv.org/abs/1712.02545. [8] D. Boffi, L. Gastaldi, L. Heltai and C. S. Peskin, On the hyper-elastic formulation of the immersed boundary method, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 197 (2008), 2210-2231.  doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2007.09.015. [9] M. Boulakia and S. Guerrero, On the interaction problem between a compressible fluid and a Saint–Venant Kirchoff elastic structure, Adv. Differential Equations, 22 (2017), 1-48. [10] M. Boulakia, S. Guerrero and T. Takahashi, Well-posedness for the coupling between a viscous incompressible fluid and an elastic structure, Nonlinearity, 32 (2019), 3548-3592.  doi: 10.1088/1361-6544/ab128c. [11] W. Chen, M. Gunzburger, D. Sun and X. Wang, Efficient and long-time accurate second-order methods for Stokes-Darcy Systems, SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 51 (2013), 2563-2584.  doi: 10.1137/120897705. [12] C. Coutand and S. Shloller, Motion of an elastic solid inside an incompressible fluid-structure interaction, Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal., 176 (2005), 25-102.  doi: 10.1007/s00205-004-0340-7. [13] C. Coutand and S. Shloller, The interaction between quasilinear elastidynamics and the Navier–Stokes equations, Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal., 179 (2006), 303-352.  doi: 10.1007/s00205-005-0385-2. [14] P. Deuflhard and F. Bornemann, Numerische Mathematik 2, revised edition, de Gruyter Lehrbuch. [de Gruyter Textbook], Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin, 2008, Gewöhnliche Differentialgleichungen. [Ordinary differential equations]. [15] S. Dong, BDF-like methods for nonlinear dynamic analysis, J. Comput. Phys., 229 (2010), 3019-3045.  doi: 10.1016/j.jcp.2009.12.028. [16] B. E. Griffith, On the volume conservation of the immersed boundary method, Commun. Comput. Phys., 12 (2012), 401-432.  doi: 10.4208/cicp.120111.300911s. [17] B. E. Griffith and X. Luo, Hybrid finite difference/finite element immersed boundary method, Int. J. Numer. Meth. Biomed. Engng., 33 (2017), e2888, 31pp. doi: 10.1002/cnm.2888. [18] L. Heltai and F. Costanzo, Variational implementation of immersed finite element methods, Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 229/232 (2012), 110-127.  doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2012.04.001. [19] J. Heywood and R. Rannacher, Finite-element approximation of the nonstationary navier–stokes problem. part iv: error analysis for second-order time discretization, SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 27 (1990), 353-384.  doi: 10.1137/0727022. [20] O. R. Isik, G. Yuksel and B. Demir, Analysis of second order and unconditionally stable BDF2-AB2 method for the Navier-Stokes equations with nonlinear time relaxation, Numer. Methods Partial Differ. Equations, 34 (2017), 2060-2078.  doi: 10.1002/num.22276. [21] V. John, Finite Element Methods for Incompressible Flow Problems, Springer, 2016. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-45750-5. [22] Y. Okamoto, K. Fujiwara and Y. Ishihara, Effectiveness of higher order time integration in time-domain finite-element analysis, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 46 (2010), 3321-3324.  doi: 10.1109/TMAG.2010.2044771. [23] C. S. Peskin, The immersed boundary method, Acta Numerica, 11 (2002), 479-517.  doi: 10.1017/S0962492902000077. [24] J.-P. Raymond and M. Vanninathan, A fluid-structure model coupling the Navier–Sstokes equations and the Lamé system, J. Mat. Pura Appl., 102 (2014), 546-596.  doi: 10.1016/j.matpur.2013.12.004. [25] S. Roy, L. Heltai and F. Costanzo, Benchmarking the immersed finite element method for fluid-structure interaction problems, Comput. Math. Appl., 69 (2015), 1167–1188. doi: 10.1016/j.camwa.2015.03.012. [26] X. Wang and L. T. Zhang, Interpolation functions in the immersed boundary and finite element methods, Comput. Mech., 45 (2009), 321. doi: 10.1007/s00466-009-0449-5.
Geometrical configuration of the FSI problem
Sparsity pattern for a matrix arising from Equation (24)
Meshes for the fluid and the structure
The deformed annulus 1
Volume preservation over time
Volume preservation over time for coarser parameters
Volume preservation over time for IFEM method
Mesh parameters
 DOFs $\mathbf{u}_h$ DOFs $p_h$ DOFs $\mathbf{X}_h$ DOFs $\lambda_h$ coarse mesh (M = $8$) $578$ $209$ $306$ $306$ fine mesh (M = $16$) $2,178$ $801$ $1,122$ $1,122$
 DOFs $\mathbf{u}_h$ DOFs $p_h$ DOFs $\mathbf{X}_h$ DOFs $\lambda_h$ coarse mesh (M = $8$) $578$ $209$ $306$ $306$ fine mesh (M = $16$) $2,178$ $801$ $1,122$ $1,122$
Convergence results for the fully implicit scheme on the coarse mesh
 Fluid velocity $\mathsf{BDF1}$ $\mathsf{BDF2}$ $\mathsf{CNm}$ $\mathsf{CNt}$ $\Delta t$ $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $0.05$ $7.63\cdot 10^{-2}$ $2.97\cdot 10^{-2}$ $2.37\cdot 10^{-1}$ $2.42\cdot 10^{-1}$ $0.025$ $4.11\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.89$ $4.90\cdot 10^{-3}$ $2.60$ $6.24\cdot 10^{-2}$ $1.92$ $6.02\cdot 10^{-2}$ $2.00$ $0.0125$ $2.13\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.95$ $1.13\cdot 10^{-3}$ $2.11$ $1.21\cdot 10^{-2}$ $2.36$ $1.10\cdot 10^{-2}$ $2.45$ $0.00625$ $1.08\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.97$ $2.86\cdot 10^{-4}$ $1.98$ $2.03\cdot 10^{-3}$ $2.58$ $9.95\cdot 10^{-4}$ $3.47$ Structure deformation $\mathsf{BDF1}$ $\mathsf{BDF2}$ $\mathsf{CNm}$ $\mathsf{CNt}$ $\Delta t$ $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $0.05$ $1.60\cdot 10^{-3}$ $4.39\cdot 10^{-4}$ $1.43\cdot 10^{-3}$ $2.95\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.025$ $8.40\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.93$ $9.75\cdot 10^{-5}$ $2.17$ $7.90\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.86$ $6.89\cdot 10^{-5}$ $2.10$ $0.0125$ $4.29\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.97$ $2.53\cdot 10^{-5}$ $1.95$ $4.06\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.96$ $7.53\cdot 10^{-6}$ $3.19$ $0.00625$ $2.17\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.98$ $6.41\cdot 10^{-6}$ $1.98$ $2.04\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.99$ $2.05\cdot 10^{-6}$ $1.88$
 Fluid velocity $\mathsf{BDF1}$ $\mathsf{BDF2}$ $\mathsf{CNm}$ $\mathsf{CNt}$ $\Delta t$ $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $0.05$ $7.63\cdot 10^{-2}$ $2.97\cdot 10^{-2}$ $2.37\cdot 10^{-1}$ $2.42\cdot 10^{-1}$ $0.025$ $4.11\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.89$ $4.90\cdot 10^{-3}$ $2.60$ $6.24\cdot 10^{-2}$ $1.92$ $6.02\cdot 10^{-2}$ $2.00$ $0.0125$ $2.13\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.95$ $1.13\cdot 10^{-3}$ $2.11$ $1.21\cdot 10^{-2}$ $2.36$ $1.10\cdot 10^{-2}$ $2.45$ $0.00625$ $1.08\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.97$ $2.86\cdot 10^{-4}$ $1.98$ $2.03\cdot 10^{-3}$ $2.58$ $9.95\cdot 10^{-4}$ $3.47$ Structure deformation $\mathsf{BDF1}$ $\mathsf{BDF2}$ $\mathsf{CNm}$ $\mathsf{CNt}$ $\Delta t$ $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $0.05$ $1.60\cdot 10^{-3}$ $4.39\cdot 10^{-4}$ $1.43\cdot 10^{-3}$ $2.95\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.025$ $8.40\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.93$ $9.75\cdot 10^{-5}$ $2.17$ $7.90\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.86$ $6.89\cdot 10^{-5}$ $2.10$ $0.0125$ $4.29\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.97$ $2.53\cdot 10^{-5}$ $1.95$ $4.06\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.96$ $7.53\cdot 10^{-6}$ $3.19$ $0.00625$ $2.17\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.98$ $6.41\cdot 10^{-6}$ $1.98$ $2.04\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.99$ $2.05\cdot 10^{-6}$ $1.88$
Convergence results for the fully implicit scheme on the fine mesh
 Fluid velocity $\mathsf{BDF1}$ $\mathsf{BDF2}$ $\mathsf{CNm}$ $\mathsf{CNt}$ $\Delta t$ $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $0.05$ $9.05\cdot 10^{-2}$ $3.62\cdot 10^{-2}$ $2.28\cdot 10^{-1}$ $2.26\cdot 10^{-1}$ $0.025$ $4.87\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.89$ $5.05\cdot 10^{-3}$ $2.84$ $6.23\cdot 10^{-2}$ $1.87$ $6.04\cdot 10^{-2}$ $1.91$ $0.0125$ $2.54\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.94$ $1.20\cdot 10^{-3}$ $2.07$ $2.28\cdot 10^{-2}$ $1.45$ $2.07\cdot 10^{-2}$ $1.54$ $0.00625$ $1.29\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.98$ $3.53\cdot 10^{-4}$ $1.77$ $5.27\cdot 10^{-3}$ $2.11$ $4.03\cdot 10^{-3}$ $2.36$ Fluid velocity $\mathsf{BDF1}$ $\mathsf{BDF2}$ $\mathsf{CNm}$ $\mathsf{CNt}$ $\Delta t$ $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $0.05$ $1.98\cdot 10^{-3}$ $5.19\cdot 10^{-4}$ $1.65\cdot 10^{-3}$ $4.04\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.025$ $1.05\cdot 10^{-3}$ $0.92$ $9.79\cdot 10^{-5}$ $2.41$ $9.27\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.84$ $8.48\cdot 10^{-5}$ $2.25$ $0.0125$ $5.31\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.99$ $3.13\cdot 10^{-5}$ $1.64$ $4.90\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.92$ $2.47\cdot 10^{-5}$ $1.78$ $0.00625$ $2.70\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.98$ $1.35\cdot 10^{-5}$ $1.22$ $2.50\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.97$ $3.47\cdot 10^{-6}$ $2.83$
 Fluid velocity $\mathsf{BDF1}$ $\mathsf{BDF2}$ $\mathsf{CNm}$ $\mathsf{CNt}$ $\Delta t$ $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $0.05$ $9.05\cdot 10^{-2}$ $3.62\cdot 10^{-2}$ $2.28\cdot 10^{-1}$ $2.26\cdot 10^{-1}$ $0.025$ $4.87\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.89$ $5.05\cdot 10^{-3}$ $2.84$ $6.23\cdot 10^{-2}$ $1.87$ $6.04\cdot 10^{-2}$ $1.91$ $0.0125$ $2.54\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.94$ $1.20\cdot 10^{-3}$ $2.07$ $2.28\cdot 10^{-2}$ $1.45$ $2.07\cdot 10^{-2}$ $1.54$ $0.00625$ $1.29\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.98$ $3.53\cdot 10^{-4}$ $1.77$ $5.27\cdot 10^{-3}$ $2.11$ $4.03\cdot 10^{-3}$ $2.36$ Fluid velocity $\mathsf{BDF1}$ $\mathsf{BDF2}$ $\mathsf{CNm}$ $\mathsf{CNt}$ $\Delta t$ $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $0.05$ $1.98\cdot 10^{-3}$ $5.19\cdot 10^{-4}$ $1.65\cdot 10^{-3}$ $4.04\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.025$ $1.05\cdot 10^{-3}$ $0.92$ $9.79\cdot 10^{-5}$ $2.41$ $9.27\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.84$ $8.48\cdot 10^{-5}$ $2.25$ $0.0125$ $5.31\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.99$ $3.13\cdot 10^{-5}$ $1.64$ $4.90\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.92$ $2.47\cdot 10^{-5}$ $1.78$ $0.00625$ $2.70\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.98$ $1.35\cdot 10^{-5}$ $1.22$ $2.50\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.97$ $3.47\cdot 10^{-6}$ $2.83$
Maximum iterates of the nonlinear solver on the coarse mesh
 $\Delta t$ $\mathsf{BDF1}$ $\mathsf{BDF2}$ $\mathsf{CNm}$ $\mathsf{CNt}$ $0.05$ $5$ $5$ $4$ $7$ $0.025$ $4$ $4$ $3$ $4$ $0.0125$ $3$ $3$ $3$ $3$ $0.00625$ $3$ $3$ $2$ $3$
 $\Delta t$ $\mathsf{BDF1}$ $\mathsf{BDF2}$ $\mathsf{CNm}$ $\mathsf{CNt}$ $0.05$ $5$ $5$ $4$ $7$ $0.025$ $4$ $4$ $3$ $4$ $0.0125$ $3$ $3$ $3$ $3$ $0.00625$ $3$ $3$ $2$ $3$
Maximum iterates of the nonlinear solver on the fine mesh
 $\Delta t$ $\mathsf{BDF1}$ $\mathsf{BDF2}$ $\mathsf{CNm}$ $\mathsf{CNt}$ $0.05$ $10$ $5$ $6$ $6$ $0.025$ $6$ $5$ $5$ $4$ $0.0125$ $6$ $4$ $4$ $4$ $0.00625$ $4$ $4$ $3$ $3$
 $\Delta t$ $\mathsf{BDF1}$ $\mathsf{BDF2}$ $\mathsf{CNm}$ $\mathsf{CNt}$ $0.05$ $10$ $5$ $6$ $6$ $0.025$ $6$ $5$ $5$ $4$ $0.0125$ $6$ $4$ $4$ $4$ $0.00625$ $4$ $4$ $3$ $3$
Convergence results for the semi-implicit scheme on the coarse mesh
 Fluid velocity $\mathsf{BDF1}$ $\mathsf{BDF2}$ $\mathsf{CNm}$ $\mathsf{CNt}$ $\Delta t$ $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $0.05$ $7.78\cdot 10^{-2}$ $3.05\cdot 10^{-2}$ $2.49\cdot 10^{-1}$ $2.58\cdot 10^{-1}$ $0.025$ $4.17\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.90$ $7.89\cdot 10^{-3}$ $1.95$ $6.24\cdot 10^{-2}$ $2.00$ $6.74\cdot 10^{-2}$ $1.94$ $0.0125$ $2.17\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.95$ $3.14\cdot 10^{-3}$ $1.33$ $1.24\cdot 10^{-2}$ $2.33$ $2.64\cdot 10^{-2}$ $1.35$ $0.00625$ $1.10\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.97$ $1.29\cdot 10^{-3}$ $1.29$ $2.25\cdot 10^{-3}$ $2.47$ $3.18\cdot 10^{-3}$ $3.06$ Structure deformation $\mathsf{BDF1}$ $\mathsf{BDF2}$ $\mathsf{CNm}$ $\mathsf{CNt}$ $\Delta t$ $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $0.05$ $1.67\cdot 10^{-3}$ $6.79\cdot 10^{-4}$ $1.44\cdot 10^{-3}$ $3.52\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.025$ $8.65\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.95$ $2.70\cdot 10^{-4}$ $1.33$ $7.91\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.86$ $2.60\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.44$ $0.0125$ $4.36\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.99$ $1.24\cdot 10^{-4}$ $1.12$ $4.05\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.97$ $1.53\cdot 10^{-5}$ $4.08$ $0.00625$ $2.17\cdot 10^{-4}$ $1.01$ $5.71\cdot 10^{-5}$ $1.12$ $2.05\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.98$ $9.43\cdot 10^{-6}$ $0.70$
 Fluid velocity $\mathsf{BDF1}$ $\mathsf{BDF2}$ $\mathsf{CNm}$ $\mathsf{CNt}$ $\Delta t$ $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $0.05$ $7.78\cdot 10^{-2}$ $3.05\cdot 10^{-2}$ $2.49\cdot 10^{-1}$ $2.58\cdot 10^{-1}$ $0.025$ $4.17\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.90$ $7.89\cdot 10^{-3}$ $1.95$ $6.24\cdot 10^{-2}$ $2.00$ $6.74\cdot 10^{-2}$ $1.94$ $0.0125$ $2.17\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.95$ $3.14\cdot 10^{-3}$ $1.33$ $1.24\cdot 10^{-2}$ $2.33$ $2.64\cdot 10^{-2}$ $1.35$ $0.00625$ $1.10\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.97$ $1.29\cdot 10^{-3}$ $1.29$ $2.25\cdot 10^{-3}$ $2.47$ $3.18\cdot 10^{-3}$ $3.06$ Structure deformation $\mathsf{BDF1}$ $\mathsf{BDF2}$ $\mathsf{CNm}$ $\mathsf{CNt}$ $\Delta t$ $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $0.05$ $1.67\cdot 10^{-3}$ $6.79\cdot 10^{-4}$ $1.44\cdot 10^{-3}$ $3.52\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.025$ $8.65\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.95$ $2.70\cdot 10^{-4}$ $1.33$ $7.91\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.86$ $2.60\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.44$ $0.0125$ $4.36\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.99$ $1.24\cdot 10^{-4}$ $1.12$ $4.05\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.97$ $1.53\cdot 10^{-5}$ $4.08$ $0.00625$ $2.17\cdot 10^{-4}$ $1.01$ $5.71\cdot 10^{-5}$ $1.12$ $2.05\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.98$ $9.43\cdot 10^{-6}$ $0.70$
Convergence results for the semi-implicit scheme on the fine mesh
 Fluid velocity $\mathsf{BDF1}$ $\mathsf{BDF2}$ $\mathsf{CNm}$ $\mathsf{CNt}$ $\Delta t$ $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $0.05$ $9.18\cdot 10^{-2}$ $3.89\cdot 10^{-2}$ $2.36\cdot 10^{-1}$ $2.39\cdot 10^{-1}$ $0.025$ $5.05\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.86$ $8.59\cdot 10^{-3}$ $2.18$ $7.54\cdot 10^{-2}$ $1.64$ $7.06\cdot 10^{-2}$ $1.76$ $0.0125$ $2.63\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.94$ $3.32\cdot 10^{-3}$ $1.37$ $4.24\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.83$ $2.22\cdot 10^{-2}$ $1.67$ $0.00625$ $1.33\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.98$ $1.40\cdot 10^{-3}$ $1.24$ $2.19\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.96$ $4.19\cdot 10^{-3}$ $2.40$ Structure deformation $\mathsf{BDF1}$ $\mathsf{BDF2}$ $\mathsf{CNm}$ $\mathsf{CNt}$ $\Delta t$ $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $0.05$ $2.03\cdot 10^{-3}$ $7.86\cdot 10^{-4}$ $1.81\cdot 10^{-3}$ $6.51\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.025$ $1.06\cdot 10^{-3}$ $0.93$ $3.28\cdot 10^{-4}$ $1.26$ $9.75\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.89$ $1.31\cdot 10^{-4}$ $2.31$ $0.0125$ $5.34\cdot 10^{-4}$ $1.00$ $1.44\cdot 10^{-4}$ $1.18$ $5.10\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.93$ $4.82\cdot 10^{-5}$ $1.44$ $0.00625$ $2.69\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.99$ $6.31\cdot 10^{-5}$ $1.19$ $2.55\cdot 10^{-4}$ $1.00$ $1.29\cdot 10^{-5}$ $1.90$
 Fluid velocity $\mathsf{BDF1}$ $\mathsf{BDF2}$ $\mathsf{CNm}$ $\mathsf{CNt}$ $\Delta t$ $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $0.05$ $9.18\cdot 10^{-2}$ $3.89\cdot 10^{-2}$ $2.36\cdot 10^{-1}$ $2.39\cdot 10^{-1}$ $0.025$ $5.05\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.86$ $8.59\cdot 10^{-3}$ $2.18$ $7.54\cdot 10^{-2}$ $1.64$ $7.06\cdot 10^{-2}$ $1.76$ $0.0125$ $2.63\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.94$ $3.32\cdot 10^{-3}$ $1.37$ $4.24\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.83$ $2.22\cdot 10^{-2}$ $1.67$ $0.00625$ $1.33\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.98$ $1.40\cdot 10^{-3}$ $1.24$ $2.19\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.96$ $4.19\cdot 10^{-3}$ $2.40$ Structure deformation $\mathsf{BDF1}$ $\mathsf{BDF2}$ $\mathsf{CNm}$ $\mathsf{CNt}$ $\Delta t$ $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $L^2$ error rate $0.05$ $2.03\cdot 10^{-3}$ $7.86\cdot 10^{-4}$ $1.81\cdot 10^{-3}$ $6.51\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.025$ $1.06\cdot 10^{-3}$ $0.93$ $3.28\cdot 10^{-4}$ $1.26$ $9.75\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.89$ $1.31\cdot 10^{-4}$ $2.31$ $0.0125$ $5.34\cdot 10^{-4}$ $1.00$ $1.44\cdot 10^{-4}$ $1.18$ $5.10\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.93$ $4.82\cdot 10^{-5}$ $1.44$ $0.00625$ $2.69\cdot 10^{-4}$ $0.99$ $6.31\cdot 10^{-5}$ $1.19$ $2.55\cdot 10^{-4}$ $1.00$ $1.29\cdot 10^{-5}$ $1.90$
Maximum residual in the semi-implicit scheme on the coarse mesh
 $\Delta t$ $\mathsf{BDF1}$ $\mathsf{BDF2}$ $\mathsf{CNm}$ $\mathsf{CNt}$ $0.05$ $3.83\cdot 10^{-3}$ $3.83\cdot 10^{-3}$ $9.87\cdot 10^{-3}$ $9.64\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.025$ $2.09\cdot 10^{-3}$ $2.30\cdot 10^{-3}$ $1.24\cdot 10^{-3}$ $2.17\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.0125$ $7.41\cdot 10^{-4}$ $8.26\cdot 10^{-4}$ $3.62\cdot 10^{-4}$ $7.90\cdot 10^{-3}$ $0.00625$ $2.23\cdot 10^{-4}$ $2.45\cdot 10^{-4}$ $1.08\cdot 10^{-4}$ $9.55\cdot 10^{-4}$
 $\Delta t$ $\mathsf{BDF1}$ $\mathsf{BDF2}$ $\mathsf{CNm}$ $\mathsf{CNt}$ $0.05$ $3.83\cdot 10^{-3}$ $3.83\cdot 10^{-3}$ $9.87\cdot 10^{-3}$ $9.64\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.025$ $2.09\cdot 10^{-3}$ $2.30\cdot 10^{-3}$ $1.24\cdot 10^{-3}$ $2.17\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.0125$ $7.41\cdot 10^{-4}$ $8.26\cdot 10^{-4}$ $3.62\cdot 10^{-4}$ $7.90\cdot 10^{-3}$ $0.00625$ $2.23\cdot 10^{-4}$ $2.45\cdot 10^{-4}$ $1.08\cdot 10^{-4}$ $9.55\cdot 10^{-4}$
Maximum residual in the semi-implicit scheme on the fine mesh
 $\Delta t$ $\mathsf{BDF1}$ $\mathsf{BDF2}$ $\mathsf{CNm}$ $\mathsf{CNt}$ $0.05$ $3.59\cdot 10^{-2}$ $3.59\cdot 10^{-2}$ $3.43\cdot 10^{-2}$ $3.81\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.025$ $1.03\cdot 10^{-2}$ $1.07\cdot 10^{-2}$ $8.19\cdot 10^{-3}$ $1.02\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.0125$ $5.28\cdot 10^{-3}$ $5.87\cdot 10^{-3}$ $1.54\cdot 10^{-3}$ $2.27\cdot 10^{-3}$ $0.00625$ $1.46\cdot 10^{-3}$ $1.44\cdot 10^{-3}$ $4.33\cdot 10^{-4}$ $5.08\cdot 10^{-4}$
 $\Delta t$ $\mathsf{BDF1}$ $\mathsf{BDF2}$ $\mathsf{CNm}$ $\mathsf{CNt}$ $0.05$ $3.59\cdot 10^{-2}$ $3.59\cdot 10^{-2}$ $3.43\cdot 10^{-2}$ $3.81\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.025$ $1.03\cdot 10^{-2}$ $1.07\cdot 10^{-2}$ $8.19\cdot 10^{-3}$ $1.02\cdot 10^{-2}$ $0.0125$ $5.28\cdot 10^{-3}$ $5.87\cdot 10^{-3}$ $1.54\cdot 10^{-3}$ $2.27\cdot 10^{-3}$ $0.00625$ $1.46\cdot 10^{-3}$ $1.44\cdot 10^{-3}$ $4.33\cdot 10^{-4}$ $5.08\cdot 10^{-4}$
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