doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2021247
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The damping term makes the Smale-horseshoe heteroclinic chaotic motion easier

1. 

School of Basic Sciences for Aviation, Naval Aviation University, Yantai 264001, Shandong, China

2. 

Department of Mathematics, School of Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China

*Corresponding author: Hongjun Cao

Received  April 2021 Revised  August 2021 Early access October 2021

Fund Project: The first author is supported by the Independent Scientific Research Funds for Naval Aviation University under Project No. I32001011. The second author is supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Project No. 2021JBZD005 and the State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University under Project No. TPL2001

The nonlinear Rayleigh damping term that is introduced to the classical parametrically excited pendulum makes the parametrically excited pendulum more complex and interesting. The effect of the nonlinear damping term on the new excitable systems is investigated based on analytical techniques such as Melnikov theory. The threshold conditions for the occurrence of Smale-horseshoe chaos of this deterministic system are obtained. Compared with the existing conclusion, i.e. the smaller the damping term is, the easier the chaotic motions become when the damping term is linear, our analysis, however, finds that the smaller or the larger the damping term is, the easier the Smale-horseshoe heteroclinic chaotic motions become. Moreover, the bifurcation diagram and the patterns of attractors in Poincaré map are studied carefully. The results demonstrate the new system exhibits rich dynamical phenomena: periodic motions, quasi-periodic motions and even chaotic motions. Importantly, according to the property of transitive as well as the fractal layers for a chaotic attractor, we can verify whether a attractor is a quasi-periodic one or a chaotic one when the maximum lyapunov exponent method is difficult to distinguish. Numerical simulations confirm the analytical predictions and show that the transition from regular to chaotic motion.

Citation: Huijing Sun, Hongjun Cao. The damping term makes the Smale-horseshoe heteroclinic chaotic motion easier. Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems - B, doi: 10.3934/dcdsb.2021247
References:
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G. R. Abdollahzade1M. BayatM. ShahidiG. Domairry and M. Rostamian, Analysis of dynamic model of a structure with nonlinear damped behavior, International J. Engineering and Technology, 2 (2012), 160-168. 

[2]

S. R. Bishop and M. J. Clifford, Zones of chaotic behavior in the parametrically excited pendulum, J. Sound Vibration, 189 (1996), 142-147.  doi: 10.1006/jsvi.1996.0011.

[3]

C. Dou, J. Fan, C. Li, J. Cao and M. Gao, On discontinuous dynamics of a class of friction-influenced oscillators with nonlinear damping under bilateral rigid constraints, Mechanism and Machine Theory, 147 (2020). doi: 10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2019.103750.

[4]

A. Elías-Zúniga, Analytical solution of the damped Helmholtz-Duffing equation, Appl. Math. Lett., 25 (2012), 2349-2353.  doi: 10.1016/j.aml.2012.06.030.

[5]

T. S. JangH. BaekH. S. Choi and Su n-GuLee, A new method for measuring nonharmonic periodic excitation forces in nonlinear damped systems, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 25 (2011), 2219-2228.  doi: 10.1016/j.ymssp.2011.01.012.

[6]

P. Kumar and S. Narayanan, Chaos and bifurcation analysis of stochastically excited discontinuous nonlinear oscillators, Nonlinear Dyn, 102 (2020), 927-950.  doi: 10.1007/s11071-020-05960-5.

[7]

D. Li and S. W. Shaw, The effects of nonlinear damping on degenerate parametric amplification, Nonlinear Dyn, 102 (2020), 2433-2452. 

[8]

S. LiS. Yang and W. Guo, Investigation on chaotic motion in hysteretic nonlinear suspension system with multi-frequency excitationss, Mechanics Research Communications, 31 (2004), 229-236. 

[9]

G. LitakG. Spuz-SzposK. Szabelski and J. Warmiński, Vibration analysis of a self-excited system with parametric forcing and nonlinear stiffness, Int. J. Bifurcation and Chaos, 9 (1999), 493-504.  doi: 10.1142/S021812749900033X.

[10]

H. E. Nusse and J. A. Yorke, Dynamics: Numerical Explorations, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1991.

[11]

M. Siewe SieweH. J. Cao and A. F. Sanjuán Miguel, Effect of nonlinear dissipation on the basin boundaries of a driven two-well Rayleigh-Duffing oscillator, Chaos, Solitons and Fractal, 39 (2009), 1092-1099.  doi: 10.1016/j.chaos.2007.05.007.

[12]

J. L. TruebaJ. Rams and A. F. Sanjuán Miguel, Analytical estimates of the effect of nonlinear damping in some nonlinear oscillators, Internat. J. Bifur. Chaos Appl. Sci. Engrg., 10 (2000), 2257-2267.  doi: 10.1142/S0218127400001419.

[13]

B. Tang and M. J. Brennan, A comparison of the effects of nonlinear damping on the free vibration of a single-degree of dreedom system, J. Vibration and Acoustics, 134 (2012), 1-5. 

[14]

Y. Ueda, Nonlinear Theory and Its Applications, IEICE, 5 (2014), 252-258. 

[15]

S. Wiggins, Introduction to Applied Nonlinear Dynamical Systems and Chaos, volume 2 of Texts in Applied Mathematics, Springer-Verlag, NewYork, NY, 1990. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4757-4067-7.

[16]

H. YouzeraA. Meftah SidN. Challamel and A. Tounsi, Nonlinear damping and forced vibration analysis of laminated composite beams, Composites: Part B, 43 (2012), 1147-1154.  doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2012.01.008.

[17]

P. P. Zhou and H. J. Cao, The effect of symmetry-breaking on the parameterically excited pendulum, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 38 (2008), 590-597.  doi: 10.1016/j.chaos.2007.06.073.

show all references

References:
[1]

G. R. Abdollahzade1M. BayatM. ShahidiG. Domairry and M. Rostamian, Analysis of dynamic model of a structure with nonlinear damped behavior, International J. Engineering and Technology, 2 (2012), 160-168. 

[2]

S. R. Bishop and M. J. Clifford, Zones of chaotic behavior in the parametrically excited pendulum, J. Sound Vibration, 189 (1996), 142-147.  doi: 10.1006/jsvi.1996.0011.

[3]

C. Dou, J. Fan, C. Li, J. Cao and M. Gao, On discontinuous dynamics of a class of friction-influenced oscillators with nonlinear damping under bilateral rigid constraints, Mechanism and Machine Theory, 147 (2020). doi: 10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2019.103750.

[4]

A. Elías-Zúniga, Analytical solution of the damped Helmholtz-Duffing equation, Appl. Math. Lett., 25 (2012), 2349-2353.  doi: 10.1016/j.aml.2012.06.030.

[5]

T. S. JangH. BaekH. S. Choi and Su n-GuLee, A new method for measuring nonharmonic periodic excitation forces in nonlinear damped systems, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 25 (2011), 2219-2228.  doi: 10.1016/j.ymssp.2011.01.012.

[6]

P. Kumar and S. Narayanan, Chaos and bifurcation analysis of stochastically excited discontinuous nonlinear oscillators, Nonlinear Dyn, 102 (2020), 927-950.  doi: 10.1007/s11071-020-05960-5.

[7]

D. Li and S. W. Shaw, The effects of nonlinear damping on degenerate parametric amplification, Nonlinear Dyn, 102 (2020), 2433-2452. 

[8]

S. LiS. Yang and W. Guo, Investigation on chaotic motion in hysteretic nonlinear suspension system with multi-frequency excitationss, Mechanics Research Communications, 31 (2004), 229-236. 

[9]

G. LitakG. Spuz-SzposK. Szabelski and J. Warmiński, Vibration analysis of a self-excited system with parametric forcing and nonlinear stiffness, Int. J. Bifurcation and Chaos, 9 (1999), 493-504.  doi: 10.1142/S021812749900033X.

[10]

H. E. Nusse and J. A. Yorke, Dynamics: Numerical Explorations, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1991.

[11]

M. Siewe SieweH. J. Cao and A. F. Sanjuán Miguel, Effect of nonlinear dissipation on the basin boundaries of a driven two-well Rayleigh-Duffing oscillator, Chaos, Solitons and Fractal, 39 (2009), 1092-1099.  doi: 10.1016/j.chaos.2007.05.007.

[12]

J. L. TruebaJ. Rams and A. F. Sanjuán Miguel, Analytical estimates of the effect of nonlinear damping in some nonlinear oscillators, Internat. J. Bifur. Chaos Appl. Sci. Engrg., 10 (2000), 2257-2267.  doi: 10.1142/S0218127400001419.

[13]

B. Tang and M. J. Brennan, A comparison of the effects of nonlinear damping on the free vibration of a single-degree of dreedom system, J. Vibration and Acoustics, 134 (2012), 1-5. 

[14]

Y. Ueda, Nonlinear Theory and Its Applications, IEICE, 5 (2014), 252-258. 

[15]

S. Wiggins, Introduction to Applied Nonlinear Dynamical Systems and Chaos, volume 2 of Texts in Applied Mathematics, Springer-Verlag, NewYork, NY, 1990. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4757-4067-7.

[16]

H. YouzeraA. Meftah SidN. Challamel and A. Tounsi, Nonlinear damping and forced vibration analysis of laminated composite beams, Composites: Part B, 43 (2012), 1147-1154.  doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2012.01.008.

[17]

P. P. Zhou and H. J. Cao, The effect of symmetry-breaking on the parameterically excited pendulum, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 38 (2008), 590-597.  doi: 10.1016/j.chaos.2007.06.073.

Figure 1.  The corresponding curves of the potential function and the phase spaces portraits when $ \gamma = 0 $ and $ \gamma = 0.05 $. (a) The potential function $ V(x) $ for $ \gamma = 0 $. (b) The phase spaces portraits when $ \gamma = 0 $. The closed trajectories represent oscillation motion around the hanging position, while the opened trajectories $ R_{1} $, $ R_{2} $ with unchanging sign of velocity visualize the rotating motion of the pendulum in the anti-clockwise or clockwise direction, respectively. (c) The potential function $ V(x) $ for $ \gamma = 0.05 $. (d) The phase spaces portraits when $ \gamma = 0.05 $. Starting from each hyperbolic saddle, there exists an asymmetric homoclinic orbit located at the right-hand of each saddle, which means oscillation motions from one peak point can not reach to the next right peak point but turn downward.
Figure 2.  (a) Two heteroclinic orbits, two hyperbolic saddles $ x_{1} $, $ x_{-1} $ and a turning point $ x_{TP} $. (b) A homoclinic orbit, a hyperbolic saddle $ x_{-1} $ and a turning point $ x_{TP} $.
Figure 3.  The critical heteroclinic bifurcation curves are ploted when $ \gamma = 0 $. (a) $ F = 2 $.The region (I) below the heteroclinic bifurcation curve represents $ M_{-1,1}(t) $ has simple zeros, which means the upper heteroclinic orbit will break and then the chaotic behavior may appear. Similarly, the region (II) over the heteroclinic bifurcation curve represents $ M_{1,-1}(t) $ has simple zeros, which means the lower heteroclinic orbit will break and then the chaotic behavior may appear. (b) $ F = 2 $ and $ F = 3 $.The larger the exciting term coefficient $ F $ is, the easier the chaotic motions become.
Figure 4.  The critical homoclinic bifurcation curves are plotted when $ \gamma = 0.05 $, $ F = 2 $, and $ \gamma = 0.05 $, $ F = 3 $, respectively. The possible chaotic motions will be getting popular in system with decrease of $ \mu $ and the increase of $ F $. It is also found that for a fixed value of $ F $, there are three critical values under which homoclinic bifurcation may occur.
Figure 5.  The stable and unstable manifolds of the fixed points of equation $ \ddot{x}-\mu(1-\dot{x}^2)\dot{x}+\sin x+\gamma+F\sin x\cos(\omega{t}) = 0 $ (with $ \gamma = 0, F = 2, \omega = 1.3 $, $ \mu = 0.12 $ in (a) and $ \mu = 0.83 $ in (b)). (a) Fixed points, stable and unstable manifolds of the fixed point (approximately $ (3.067,-0.622)) $. In the upper left window, the fixed points are marked by crosses. In the upper right window, a part of stable manifold (blue online) of the fixed point (approximately $ (3.067,-0.622) $) is superimposed. In the lower left window, a part of unstable manifold (red online) of the fixed point (approximately $ (3.067,-0.622) $) is superimposed. The lower right window contains a superposition of the pictures of the upper left, upper right, lower left windows. The intersection of the stable and unstable manifolds implies the existence of chaos. (b) A part of the stable (blue online) and unstable manifold (red online) of the fixed point (approximately $ (3.063,-0.021) $). The intersection of the stable and unstable manifolds implies the existence of chaos.
Figure 6.  The stable and unstable manifolds of the fixed points of equation $ \ddot{x}-\mu(1-\dot{x}^2)\dot{x}+\sin x+\gamma+F\sin x\cos(\omega{t}) = 0 $ (with $ \gamma = 0.05, F = 3, \omega = 2.4 $, $ \mu = 0.23 $ in (a) and $ \mu = 0.72 $ in (b)). (a) Fixed points, stable and unstable manifolds of the fixed point (approximately $ (-3.052,-0.018)) $. In the upper left window, the fixed points are marked by crosses. In the upper right window, a part of stable manifold (blue online) of the fixed point (approximately $ (-3.052,-0.018)) $ is superimposed. In the lower left window, a part of unstable manifold (red online) of the fixed point (approximately $ (-3.052,-0.018)) $ is superimposed. The lower right window contains a superposition of the pictures of the upper left, upper right, lower left windows. The intersection of the stable and unstable manifolds implies the existence of chaos. (b) A part of stable (blue online) and unstable (red online) manifolds of the fixed point (approximately $ (-3.064,-0.032) $). The separation of the stable and unstable manifolds means that chaos does not exist.
Figure 7.  Bifurcation diagrams and the corresponding maximal Lyapunov exponents of equation $ \ddot{x}-\mu(1-\dot{x}^2)\dot{x}+\sin x+\gamma+F\sin x\cos(\omega{t}) = 0 $, (a) and (b) with $ \gamma = 0, F = 2, \omega = 1.3 $, (c) and (d) with $ \gamma = 0.05, F = 3, \omega = 2.4 $, respectively, where $ \mu $ represents the bifurcation parameter and $ L_{max} $ denotes the maximum Lyapunov exponents.
Figure 8.  A chaotic attractor and consecutive blow-ups in $ (x,y) $ plane. (a) shows a chaotic attractor with the parameter values $ \mu = 0.1 $, $ \gamma = 0, F = 2, \omega = 1.3 $. The coordinates of the (b) are the coordinates of the rectangle in (a). Similarly, the coordinates of (c) are the coordinates of the rectangle in (b).
Figure 9.  (a) A quasi-periodic attractor with the parameter values $ \mu = 0.41 $, $ \gamma = 0.05, F = 3, \omega = 2.4 $. (b) A blow-up of (a). The coordinates of the (b) are the coordinates of the rectangle in (a).
Figure 10.  (a) Two attractors of fixed points $ (-1.5964,1.7136) $ and $ (1.5964,-1.7136) $ in $ (x,y) $ plane with the parameters are $ \mu = 0.8, $ $ \gamma = 0, $ $ F = 2 $ and $ \omega = 1.3 $. (b) Basins of attraction for the two fixed points in $ (x,y) $ plane,
Figure 11.  Period-8 points when parameters $ \mu = 0.52, \gamma = 0.05, F = 3, \omega = 2.4 $.
Figure 12.  (a) Bifurcation diagrams in $ (\mu, x) $ plane with $ \gamma = 0.05, F = 3, \omega = 5.1 $, where $ \mu $ is the bifurcation parameter. (b) The corresponding maximal Lyapunov exponent in $ (\mu, L_{max}) $ plane, where $ L_{max} $ denotes the maximum Lyapunov exponents.
Figure 13.  (a) Five different attractors when $ \mu = 0.01, \gamma = 0.05, F = 3, \omega = 5.1 $. Limit cycle (as shown in the upper left window); Period-$ 2 $ points (as shown in the upper right window); Period-$ 6 $ points (as shown in the lower left and right windows). (b) The corresponding attractive basins of the five attractors.
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