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Uyghur morphological analysis using joint conditional random fields: Based on small scaled corpus

  • * Corresponding author: Ghalip Abdukerim

    * Corresponding author: Ghalip Abdukerim 
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  • As a fundamental research in the field of natural language processing, the Uyghur morphological analysis is used mainly to determine the part of speech (POS) and segmental morphemes (stem and affix) of a word in a given sentence, as well as to automatically annotate the grammatical function of the morphemes based on the context. It is necessary to provide various information for other tasks of natural language processing including syntactic analysis, machine translation, automatic summarization, and semantic analysis, etc. In order to increase the morphological analysis efficiency, this paper puts forward a hybrid approach to create a statistical model for Uyghur morphological tagging through a small-scale corpus. Experimental results show that this plan can obtain an overall accuracy of 92.58 % with a limited training corpus.

    Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary: 68T50, 68U15; Secondary: 60G60.

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  • Figure 1.  The morphological analysis result and hierarchical relationship of a Uyghur sentence

    Figure 2.  The Architecture of a semi-supervised morphological analysis based on the hybrid approach

    Figure 3.  Morphological Tag Decoding Process of Words in the Sentence

    Figure 4.  The Relationship between Parameter $\beta$ and Accuracy

    Table 1.  Feature Template of POS Tagging Model

    Features Description
    ${{w}_{i-2}}{{pos}_{i}}$, ${{w}_{i-1}}{{pos}_{i}}$,
    ${{w}_{i}}{{pos}_{i}}$, ${{w}_{i+1}}{{pos}_{i}}$,
    ${{w}_{i+2}}{{pos}_{i}}$ Unary context features of the word
    ${{w}_{i-2}}{{w}_{i-1}}{{pos}_{i}}$, ${{w}_{i-1}}{{w}_{i}}{{pos}_{i}}$,
    ${{w}_{i}}{{w}_{i+1}}{{pos}_{i}}$, ${{w}_{i+1}}{{w}_{i+2}}{{pos}_{i}}$,
    ${{w}_{i-1}}{{w}_{i+1}}{{pos}_{i}}$ Binary context features of the word
    $h_1(w_i){{pos}_{i}}$, $h_2(w_i){{pos}_{i}}$,
    $h_3(w_i){{pos}_{i}}$,
    $h_4(w_i){{pos}_{i}}$,
    $h_5(w_i){{pos}_{i}}$ n characters selected from the beginning of the word
    $t_1(w_i){{pos}_{i}}$, $t_2(w_i){{pos}_{i}}$, $t_3(w_i){{pos}_{i}}$,
    $t_4(w_i){{pos}_{i}}$, $t_5(w_i){{pos}_{i}}$ n characters selected from the end of the word
    ${{pos}_{i-1}}{{pos}_{i}}$ POS tag transition feature
     | Show Table
    DownLoad: CSV

    Table 2.  Feature Template of the Morphological Tagging Model

    Features Description
    ${{m}_{i-2}}{{t}_{i}}$, ${{m}_{i-1}}{{t}_{i}}$, ${{m}_{i}}{{t}_{i}}$, ${{m}_{i+1}}{{t}_{i}}$, ${{m}_{i+2}}{{t}_{i}}$ Unary context features of the morpheme
    ${{m}_{i-2}}{{m}_{i-1}}{{t}_{i}}$, ${{m}_{i-1}}{{m}_{i}}{{t}_{i}}$, ${{m}_{i}}{{m}_{i+1}}{{t}_{i}}$,
    ${{m}_{i+1}}{{m}_{i+2}}{{t}_{i}}$, ${{m}_{i-1}}{{m}_{i+1}}{{t}_{i}}$ Binary context features of the morpheme
    ${{t}_{i-1}}{{t}_{i}}$ Morphological tag transition feature
     | Show Table
    DownLoad: CSV

    Table 3.  List of Morphological Tag Candidates of Words in the Sentence

     | Show Table
    DownLoad: CSV

    Table 4.  Manually Tagged Corpus Format and Content Example

     | Show Table
    DownLoad: CSV

    Table 5.  Details of Experimental Data

    Number of sentences Number of words (including punctuation marks) Number of Uyghur words
    Training set 1000 12433 10391
    Development set 200 2564 2151
    Test set 200 2492 2075
     | Show Table
    DownLoad: CSV

    Table 6.  Experimental Results

    Method Accuracy (%)
    Stemming Morpheme segmentation POS Overall
    Tag sequence Markov model 90.18 83.25 86.17 75.13
    Joint CRF model 91.98 85.79 92.7 77.95
    Tag sequence Markov model, $\alpha$=0.95 92.65 88.47 88.12 79.65
    Joint CRF model, $\alpha$=0.9 92.85 89.76 92.6 80.73
     | Show Table
    DownLoad: CSV

    Table 7.  Analysis for the Influence of Filtering Rules on Morphological Tagging

    Method(Joint CRF model, $\alpha$=0.9, $\beta$=0.1) Accuracy (%)
    Stemming Morpheme segmentation POS Overall
    Joint CRF model,
    $\alpha$=0.9, $\beta$=0.1,
    When filtering rules are not used
    92.85 89.76 92.6 80.73
    Joint CRF model,
    $\alpha$=0.9, $\beta$=0.1,
    When filtering rules are used
    97.4 94.58 96.35 92.58
    Tag sequence transition model,
    $\alpha$=0.95,
    When filtering rules are used
    94.35 93.22 94.78 91.81
     | Show Table
    DownLoad: CSV
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