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Bistability analysis of virus infection models with time delays

  • * Corresponding author: Yuri Nechepurenko

    * Corresponding author: Yuri Nechepurenko 
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  • Mathematical models with time delays are widely used to analyze the mechanisms of the immune response to virus infections and predict various therapeutic effects. Using the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection model as an example, this work describes an original computational technology for searching the bistable regimes of such models. This technology includes numerical methods for finding all possible steady states at fixed values of parameters, for tracing these states along the parameters and for analyzing their stability.

    Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary: 97M60, 34K10, 65L07; Secondary: 37N25, 34K28, 34L16.


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  • Figure 1.  The first step of constructing elementary components

    Figure 2.  Steady states (Ⅰ — black, Ⅱ — red, Ⅲ — green, Ⅳ — blue) and their stability (solid line) and instability (dashed line) as functions of $ b_p $

    Figure 3.  Leading eigenvalues in steady states Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ at $ b_p = 10^{-5} $ ("x"), $ 3.5\cdot10^{-4} $ ("+"), $ 6.7\cdot10^{-4} $ ("o")

    Figure 4.  Steady states (Ⅰ — black, Ⅱ — red, Ⅲ — green, Ⅳ — blue) and their stability (solid line) and instability (dashed line) as functions of $ \beta $

    Figure 5.  Steady state values of $ V $ as a function of parameter $ b_p $ for the following values of $ \beta $: $ 1.72 $ (A), $ 1.69 $ (B), $ 1.671 $ (C), $ 1.67 $ (D)

    Table 1.  Biological meaning of the model (1) parameters

    Parameter Biological meaning
    $ \beta $ Viruses replication rate constant
    $ \gamma_{VE} $ Rate constant of virus clearance due to effector CTLs
    $ V_{mvc} $ Maximum possible virus concentration in spleen
    $ \tau $ Typical duration of CTL division cycle
    $ b_p $ Rate constant of CTL stimulation
    $ b_d $ Rate constant of CTL differentiation
    $ \theta_p $ Cumulative viral load threshold for anergy induction
    in precursor CTLs
    $ \theta_E $ Cumulative viral load threshold for anergy induction
    in effector CTLs
    $ \alpha_{E_{p}} $ Precursor CTL natural death rate constant
    $ \alpha_{E_{e}} $ Effector CTL natural death rate constant
    $ E_p^0 $ Concentration of precursor CTLs
    in spleen of unprimed mouse
    $ \tau_A $ Typical duration of CTLs commitment for apoptosis
    $ \alpha_{AP} $ Precursor CTL apoptosis rate constant
    $ \alpha_{AE} $ Effector CTL apoptosis rate constant
    $ b_{W} $ Rate constant of cumulative viral load increase
    $ \alpha_{W} $ Rate constant of restoration from
    the inhibitory effect of cumulative viral load
     | Show Table
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