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A novel bond stress-slip model for 3-D printed concretes

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  • This paper considers the 3D printing process as a discontinuous control system and gives a simple and coherent bond stress-slip model for a new and intelligent building 3-D printed concrete. The previous models focused on either the maximal stress or the maximal slip, however, the novel model uses an energy approach by the dimension analysis, so that the main factors affecting the bond stress-slip relationship can be clearly revealed, mainly including the concrete's properties (its porous structure and its strength), the steel bar's properties (its printing direction, its strength, its surface roughness and its geometrical property) and the printing process. It is confirmed that the proposed model, similar to the constitutive relationship in elasticity, plays a key role in concrete mechanics, and it can conveniently explain the observed phenomena from the experiment.

    Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary: 58F15, 58F17; Secondary: 53C35.

    Citation:

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  • Figure 1.  Sketch of test specimen (unit: mm)

    Figure 2.  Cubic specimen

    Figure 3.  Test loading device

    Figure 4.  Damaged shape of specimen (The main damage of the specimen is the split failure, and the pull-out failure mainly occurred in the specimens with the 45 printing direction) (a) Herringbone splitting (b) In-line splitting (c) Pull out

    Figure 5.  Bond stress-slip relationship

    Figure 6.  Printing direction

    Figure 7.  Nonlinear bond stress-slip relationship [21]

    Table 1.  Main chemical components of cementitious materials wt. %

    Component Na$ _{2} $O MgO Al$ _{2} $O$ _{3} $ SiO$ _{2} $ P$ _{2} $O$ _{5} $ SO$ _{3} $ Cl K$ _{2} $O FeO$ _{3} $ TiO$ _{2} $ SrO
    Cement 0.08 0.65 4.65 20.9 0.12 2.65 0.05 0.87 65.00 3.23 0.22
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    Table 2.  Mix ratio of 3D printed concrete (wt. %)

    Water-cement ratio cement Early Strength Agent Sand Fly ash Silica Fume Cellulase PVA Water reducing agent
    0.3 26.6% 2.66% 66.46% 2.68% 1.34% 0.027% 0.0225% 0.186%
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    Table 3.  Mechanical properties of the casted and printed concretes

    Samples Compressive strength
    Casted concrete 50.2 MPa
    Printed concrete X-direction 37.7 MPa
    Y-direction 42.9 MPa
    Z-direction 40.0 MPa
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    Table 4.  Mechanical properties of steel bars

    Rebar typeDiameter (mm) Yield Strength (MPa) Ultimate strength (MPa) Strain Elastic Modulus (MPa)
    HRB400 10 330 400 14% 2.00$\times$10$^{5}$
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    Table 5.  Pull-out test results of 3D printed concrete

    Samples Rebar type $\tau_\text{max}$ (MPa) $s_\text{max}$ (mm) $\tau_\text{max}s_\text{max}$ (MPa$^{*}$mm) Average (MPa$^{*}$mm)
    Our group Casted sample HRB400 10.13 0.933 9.4512 9.4512
    Parallelly printed samples 8.75 0.93 8.1375 8.1375
    Vertically printed samples 8.22 0.99 8.1378 8.1378
    Inclined printed samples with 45° 6.15 0.80 4.92 4.92
    Ref. [40] Casted samples BFRP Unsmooth bar 26.57 0.54 14.3478 16.7413
    28.17 0.59 16.6203
    28.74 0.67 19.2558
    BFRP Smooth bar 23.94 1.35 19.36953 22.86019
    25.71 1.42 23.60083
    24.82 1.33 25.61021
    Parallelly printed samples BFRP Unsmooth bar 22.81 0.49 11.1769 12.37963
    24.27 0.56 13.5912
    23.79 0.52 12.3708
    BFRP Smooth bar 21.35 1.29 14.4182 16.80665
    22.79 1.32 17.94038
    21.42 1.46 18.06137
    Vertically printed samples BFRP Unsmooth bar 20.48 0.52 10.6496 10.47707
    20.65 0.48 9.912
    19.41 0.56 10.8696
    BFRP Smooth bar 13.51 1.01 10.7561 12.68027
    18.84 1.36 13.48032
    18.91 1.27 13.80439
    Inclined printed samples with 45° BFRP Unsmooth bar 23.59 0.58 13.6822 12.42147
    22.58 0.49 11.0642
    22.76 0.55 12.518
    BFRP Smooth bar 15.46 1.37 18.74461 16.44966
    20.07 1.25 13.83025
    21.94 1.34 16.77412
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    Table 6.  Effects of bars property and concretes property on the bond stress-slip relationship

    Samples D mm $\tau_\text{max}$ MPa $s_\text{max}$ mm $\tau_\text{max}s_\text{max}$ MPa.mm L mm DL mm$^{2}$ $\tau_\text{concrete}$ MPa $\tau_\text{max}s_\text{max}$/ ($\tau_\text{concrete} L$)
    Casted 10.0 10.13 0.93 9.4512 60 600 50.2 0.003137848
    Parallelly 8.75 0.93 8.1375 42.9 0.003161421
    Vertically 8.22 0.99 8.1378 37.7 0.003597612
    Ref.[45] 9.6 15.88 2.23 35.4124 48 461 37.7 0.019569187
    10.4 18.56 1.68 31.1808 54 557 0.015444947
    Ref.[46] 8.0 19.49 1.50 29.2350 40 320 36.3 0.020139846
    12.0 17.75 3.14 55.7350 60 720 0.025597042
    8.0 21.09 1.77 37.3293 20 160 0.051431937
    12.0 20.27 2.30 46.6210 30 360 0.042822632
    Ref.[28] 16.0 16.42 3.72 61.0517 80 1280 35.0 0.021804189
    16.0 18.06 2.15 38.7929 80 1280 35.0 0.013854600
    16.0 11.11 3.47 38.5517 80 1280 42.5 0.011338735
    16.0 14.81 4.92 72.8652 80 1280 55.5 0.016411081
    16.0 17.36 2.67 46.3512 80 1280 60.9 0.009513793
    Ref.[13] 12.0 16.48 1.08 17.7984 60 720 30.0 0.009888000
    12.0 20.43 1.50 30.6450 60 720 0.017025000
    8.0 19.03 0.32 6.08960 40 320 0.005074667
    Ref.[29] 10.0 20.00 0.91 18.2000 7.8 78.3 30 0.077479779
    8.0 50.00 1.12 56.0000 19.5 156 20 0.143589744
    12.0 90.00 1.90 171.000 16.45 197.4 40 0.259878419
    Ref.[26] 10.0 13.52 3.20 43.2640 50 500 35.3 0.024512181
    10.0 16.33 2.72 44.4176 100 1000 0.012582890
    10.0 14.58 0.65 9.47700 150 1500 0.001789802
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