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Analysis of the Hessian for inverse scattering problems. Part III: Inverse medium scattering of electromagnetic waves in three dimensions

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  • Continuing our previous work [6, Inverse Problems, 2012, 28, 055002] and [5, Inverse Problems, 2012, 28, 055001], we address the ill-posedness of the inverse scattering problem of electromagnetic waves due to an inhomogeneous medium by studying the Hessian of the data misfit. We derive and analyze the Hessian in both Hölder and Sobolev spaces. Using an integral equation approach based on Newton potential theory and compact embeddings in Hölder and Sobolev spaces, we show that the Hessian can be decomposed into three components, all of which are shown to be compact operators. The implication of the compactness of the Hessian is that for small data noise and model error, the discrete Hessian can be approximated by a low-rank matrix. This in turn enables fast solution of an appropriately regularized inverse problem, as well as Gaussian-based quantification of uncertainty in the estimated inhomogeneity.
    Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary: 49N45, 49K20, 49K40, 49K30; Secondary: 49J50, 49N60.


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