# American Institute of Mathematical Sciences

June  2021, 15(3): 555-597. doi: 10.3934/ipi.2021005

## Mathematical analysis of the acoustic imaging modality using bubbles as contrast agents at nearly resonating frequencies

 RICAM, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Altenbergerstrasse 69, A-4040, Linz, Austria

* Corresponding author: Ahcene Ghandriche

± This author is supported by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF): P 30756-NBL.
This author is partially supported by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF): P 30756-NBL

Received  June 2020 Revised  October 2020 Published  December 2020

We analyze mathematically the acoustic imaging modality using bubbles as contrast agents. These bubbles are modeled by mass densities and bulk moduli enjoying contrasting scales. These contrasting scales allow them to resonate at certain incident frequencies. We consider two types of such contrasts. In the first one, the bubbles are light with small bulk modulus, as compared to the ones of the background, so that they generate the Minnaert resonance (corresponding to a local surface wave). In the second one, the bubbles have moderate mass density but still with small bulk modulus so that they generate a sequence of resonances (corresponding to local body waves).

We propose to use as measurements the far-fields collected before and after injecting a bubble, set at a given location point in the target domain, generated at a band of incident frequencies and at a fixed single backscattering direction. Then, we scan the target domain with such bubbles and collect the corresponding far-fields. The goal is to reconstruct both the, variable, mass density and bulk modulus of the background in the target region.

1.We show that, for each fixed used bubble, the contrasted far-fields reach their maximum value at, incident, frequencies close to the Minnaert resonance (or the body-wave resonances depending on the types of bubbles we use). Hence, we can reconstruct this resonance from our data. The explicit dependence of these resonances in terms of the background mass density of the background allows us to recover it, i.e. the mass density, in a straightforward way.

2.In addition, this measured contrasted far-fields allow us to recover the total field at the location points of the bubbles (i.e. the total field in the absence of the bubbles). A numerical differentiation argument, for instance, allows us to recover the bulk modulus of the targeted region as well.

Citation: Alexander Dabrowski, Ahcene Ghandriche, Mourad Sini. Mathematical analysis of the acoustic imaging modality using bubbles as contrast agents at nearly resonating frequencies. Inverse Problems & Imaging, 2021, 15 (3) : 555-597. doi: 10.3934/ipi.2021005
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