# American Institute of Mathematical Sciences

January  2017, 13(1): 113-133. doi: 10.3934/jimo.2016007

## Intrinsic impediments to category captainship collaboration

 1 Université de Toulouse, Toulouse Business School, Toulouse, France 2 Louvain School of Management and CORE, Université catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium

*Corresponding author: Per J. Agrell

Received  December 2014 Revised  December 2015 Published  March 2016

Category captainship, the approach where retailers use manufacturer-retailer collaboration, is a common way to leverage resources and capabilities in order to improve the sales/shelf performance ratio. However, evidence suggests that the depth and effectiveness of category captains and collaboration in retail are not as high as theory or best practice would predict. Suppliers and retailers suspect each other of opportunistic behaviour detrimental to both. In a stylized dyadic supply chain model prior to the effective contracting of the category captain, we show why information asymmetry between both is preferred: the retailer will hint at or develop retaliatory power to keep the supplier in check whereas the supplier will try to extract a rent by taking advantage of available information about relationship specific investment. We model single-period interaction when the retailer has to invest in relationship specific assets and alternative category manager grooming. We provide normative and positive support both to the captain's potential opportunistic behaviour as well as the retailer's investment decision in alternative captains and monitoring ability. In a two-period extension, we show how the retailer can discipline the captain ex ante. The model and its results complement and extend research in pre-contractual category captainship and supplier-retailer collaboration and coordination. They represent a departure from the usual vision in which sharing information and collaborating generate higher supply chain rent.

Citation: Xavier Brusset, Per J. Agrell. Intrinsic impediments to category captainship collaboration. Journal of Industrial and Management Optimization, 2017, 13 (1) : 113-133. doi: 10.3934/jimo.2016007
##### References:
 [1] P. Aghion, M. Dewatripont and P. Rey, Renegotiation design with incomplete information, Econometrica, 62 (1994), 252-282. [2] S. Baiman and M. V. Rajan, The role of information and opportunism in the choice of buyer-supplier relationships, Journal of Accounting Research, 40 (2002), 2247-278.  doi: 10.1111/1475-679X.00046. [3] S. Bandyopadhyay, A. Rominger and S. Basaviah, Developing a framework to improve retail category management through category captain arrangements, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 16 (2009), 315-319.  doi: 10.1016/j.jretconser.2008.12.001. [4] R. E. Barlow and F. Proschan, Mathematical theory of reliability, chapter 1, John Wiley & Sons, 1965, 9-18. [5] S. Borchert, Implementation hurdles of ECR partnerships-the German food sector as an ECR case study, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 30 (2002), 354-360.  doi: 10.1108/09590550210433338. [6] X. Brusset, Estimating the supply chain efficiency loss when the seller has to estimate the buyer's willingness to pay, RAIRO -Operations Research, 48 (2014), 477-496.  doi: 10.1051/ro/2014018. [7] G. Cachon, Supply chain coordination with contracts, in Handbooks in Operations Research and Management Science: Supply Chain Management (eds. T. de Kok and S. Graves), 11, chapter 6, Elsevier, 2004,229-340. doi: 10.1016/S0927-0507(03)11006-7. [8] G. Cachon and M. Lariviere, Contracting to assure supply: how to share demand forecasts in a supply chain, Management Science, 47 (2001), 629-646.  doi: 10.1287/mnsc.47.5.629.10486. [9] C. Camman and L. Livolsi, Le category management, un vecteur de transversalité?, Management & Avenir, 4 (2009), 146-162.  doi: 10.3917/mav.024.0146. [10] L. S. Carameli, The anti-competitive effects and antitrust implications of Category Management and category captains of consumer products, Chicago-Kent Law Review, 79 (2013), 1313-1356. [11] F. Chen, Information sharing and supply chain coordination, in Handbooks in Operations Research and Management Science: Supply chain Management (eds. T. de Kok and S. Graves), vol. 11, Elsevier, 2004, chapter 7,341-421. doi: 10.1016/S0927-0507(03)11007-9. [12] T.-Y. Chung, Incomplete contracts, specific investments, and risk sharing, Review of Economic Studies, 58 (1991), 1031-1042.  doi: 10.2307/2297950. [13] E. Colla, Le contre-pouvoir de la distribution: une synthèse des théories économiques, stratégiques et de marketing des canaux, 2007, http://iut.univ-avignon.fr/mini_site/group/223/COMINDUS/Colla.pdf. [14] D. Corsten and N. Kumar, Do suppliers benefit from collaborative relationships with large retailers? an empirical investigation of the efficient consumer response action, Journal of Marketing, 69 (2005), 80-94.  doi: 10.1509/jmkg.69.3.80.66360. [15] D. M. Desrochers, G. T. Gundach and A. A. Foer, Analysis of antitrust challenges to category captain arrangements, Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 22 (2003), 201-215.  doi: 10.1509/jppm.22.2.201.17635. [16] K. Dupre and T. W. Gruen, The use of category management practices to obtain a sustainable competitive advantage in the fast-moving consumer goods industry, Journal of Business & Industrial Maketing, 19 (2004), 444-459.  doi: 10.1108/08858620410564391. [17] D. Fudenberg, D. K. Levine and J. Tirole, Game-Theoretic Models of Bargaining, chapter Infinite-horizon models of bargaining with one-sided incomplete information, Cambridge University Press, 1985. [18] D. Fudenberg and J. Tirole, Sequential bargaining with incomplete information, Review of Economic Studies, 50 (1983), 221-247.  doi: 10.2307/2297414. [19] S. Ganesan, M. George, S. Jap, R. W. Palmatier and B. Weitz, Supply chain management and retailer performance: emerging trends, issues, and implications for research and practice, Journal of Retailing, 1 (2009), 84-94.  doi: 10.1016/j.jretai.2008.12.001. [20] R. S. Greenberger, UST must pay ＄1.05 billion to a big tobacco competitor, 2003. [21] T. Gruen and R. Shah, Determinants and outcomes of plan and objectivity and implementation in category management relationships, Journal of Retailing, 76 (2000), 483-510.  doi: 10.1016/S0022-4359(00)00041-5. [22] M. Halac, Relational contracts and the value of relationships, American Economic Review, 102 (2012), 750-779. [23] Joint Industry Report on Efficient Consumer Response, Category Management Report: Enhancing Consumer Value in the Grocery Industry, Technical report, Category Management Subcommittee, ECR Best Practices Operating Committee and The Partnering Group Inc, 1995. [24] Kea & Partners, Le magasin bousculé, le magasin toujours star, Technical report, Kea & Partners, 2014. Available from: https://www.kea-partners.com/sites/default/files/keapartners/enquetekeamagasindemain.pdf. [25] B. Klein and J. D. Wright, Antitrust analysis of Category Management, The Supreme Court Economic Review, 17. [26] H. Kotzab, Improving supply chain performance by Efficient Customer Response: a critical comparison of existing ECR approaches, Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 14 (1999), 364-377.  doi: 10.1108/08858629910290111. [27] S. Kurnia and R. B. Johnston, Adoption of efficient consumer response: key issues and challenges in Australia, Supply Chain Management: an International Journal, 8 (2003), 251-262.  doi: 10.1108/13598540310484645. [28] M. Kurtuluş, A. Nakkas and S. Ülküs, The value of category captainship in the presence of manufacturer competition, Production and Operations Management, 23 (2014), 420-430.  doi: 10.1111/poms.12062. [29] M. Kurtuluş and L. B. Toktay, Category captainship: who wins, who loses?, ECR Journal, 4 (2004), 27-33.  doi: 10.2139/ssrn.934970. [30] M. Kurtuluş and L. B. Toktay, Category captainship: Outsourcing retail category management, Working Paper, 2007. Available from: http://ssrn.com/abstract=956577. [31] M. Kurtuluş and L. B. Toktay, Category captainship vs. retailer category management under limited retail shelf space, Production and Operations Management, 20 (2011), 47-56.  doi: 10.1111/j.1937-5956.2010.01141.x. [32] M. Kurtulu¸s and L. B. Toktay, Retail Supply Chain Management, chapter 7-Category captainship practices in the retail industry, 2nd edition, International Series in Operations Research & Management Science, Springer, 2015,147-174. [33] M. Kurtuluş, S. Ülkü, J. P. Dotson and A. Nakkas, The impact of category captainship on the breadth and appeal of a retailer's assortment, Journal of Retailing, 90 (2014), 379-392.  doi: 10.1016/j.jretai.2014.02.001. [34] T. B. Leary, A Second Look at Category Management, Technical report, Federal Trade Commission Report, 2003. Available from: http://www.ftc.gov (accessed March 3,2010). [35] I. Lianos, New kids on the block: Retailer-driven vertical practices and the new regulation of vertical restraints in EU competition law, CPI Antitrust Journal, 2 (2010). [36] A. Lindblom and R. Olkkonen, An analysis of suppliers' roles in category management collaboration, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 15 (2008), 1-8.  doi: 10.1016/j.jretconser.2007.01.002. [37] A. Lindblom, R. Olkkonen, P. Ollila and S. Hyvönen, Suppliers' role in category management: A study of supplier-retailer relationbships in Finland and Sweden, Industrial Marketing Management, 38 (2009), 1006-1013.  doi: 10.1016/j.indmarman.2008.05.004. [38] E. Maskin, Nash equilibrium and welfare optimality, The Review of Economic Studies, 66 (1999), 23-39.  doi: 10.1111/1467-937X.00076. [39] E. Maskin and J. Moore, Implementation and renegotiation, The Review of Economic Studies, 66 (1999), 39-57.  doi: 10.1111/1467-937X.00077. [40] R. Matthews, More promise than performance?, Progressive Grocer, (), 26-28. [41] N. A. Morgan, A. Kaleka and R. Gooner, Focal supplier opportunism in supermarket retailer category management, Journal of Operations Management, 25 (2007), 512-527.  doi: 10.1016/j.jom.2006.05.006. [42] T. O'Toole and B. Donaldson, Relationship performance dimensions of buyer-supplier exchanges, European Journal of Purchasing & Supply Management, 8 (2002), 197-207.  doi: 10.1016/S0969-7012(02)00008-4. [43] A. Rubinstein, Perfect equilibrium in a bargaining model, Econometrica, 54 (1982), 97-109.  doi: 10.2307/1912531. [44] I. Segal and M. Whinston, Exclusive contracts and protection of investments, Rand Journal of Economics, 31 (2000), 603-633. [45] R. Selten, Reexamination of the perfectness concept for equilibrium points in extensive games, International Journal of Game Theory, 4 (1975), 25-55.  doi: 10.1007/BF01766400. [46] R. L. Steiner, Category management - a pervasive new vertical/horizontal format, Antitrust Magazine. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.1805129. [47] U. Subramanian, J. S. Raju, S. K. Dhar and U. Wang, Competitive consequences of using a category captain, Management Science, 56 (2010), 1739-1765.  doi: 10.1287/mnsc.1100.1211. [48] J. Tirole, Cognition and incomplete contracts, American Economic Review, 99 (2009), 265-294.  doi: 10.1257/aer.99.1.265. [49] M. Tosh, What's up with ECR?, Progressive Grocer, (), 8-12. [50] Y. Wang, J. S. Raju and S. K. Dhar, The Choice and Consequences of Using a Category Captain for Category Management, Office of Research, Singapore Management University, 2003.

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##### References:
 [1] P. Aghion, M. Dewatripont and P. Rey, Renegotiation design with incomplete information, Econometrica, 62 (1994), 252-282. [2] S. Baiman and M. V. Rajan, The role of information and opportunism in the choice of buyer-supplier relationships, Journal of Accounting Research, 40 (2002), 2247-278.  doi: 10.1111/1475-679X.00046. [3] S. Bandyopadhyay, A. Rominger and S. Basaviah, Developing a framework to improve retail category management through category captain arrangements, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 16 (2009), 315-319.  doi: 10.1016/j.jretconser.2008.12.001. [4] R. E. Barlow and F. Proschan, Mathematical theory of reliability, chapter 1, John Wiley & Sons, 1965, 9-18. [5] S. Borchert, Implementation hurdles of ECR partnerships-the German food sector as an ECR case study, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 30 (2002), 354-360.  doi: 10.1108/09590550210433338. [6] X. Brusset, Estimating the supply chain efficiency loss when the seller has to estimate the buyer's willingness to pay, RAIRO -Operations Research, 48 (2014), 477-496.  doi: 10.1051/ro/2014018. [7] G. Cachon, Supply chain coordination with contracts, in Handbooks in Operations Research and Management Science: Supply Chain Management (eds. T. de Kok and S. Graves), 11, chapter 6, Elsevier, 2004,229-340. doi: 10.1016/S0927-0507(03)11006-7. [8] G. Cachon and M. Lariviere, Contracting to assure supply: how to share demand forecasts in a supply chain, Management Science, 47 (2001), 629-646.  doi: 10.1287/mnsc.47.5.629.10486. [9] C. Camman and L. Livolsi, Le category management, un vecteur de transversalité?, Management & Avenir, 4 (2009), 146-162.  doi: 10.3917/mav.024.0146. [10] L. S. Carameli, The anti-competitive effects and antitrust implications of Category Management and category captains of consumer products, Chicago-Kent Law Review, 79 (2013), 1313-1356. [11] F. Chen, Information sharing and supply chain coordination, in Handbooks in Operations Research and Management Science: Supply chain Management (eds. T. de Kok and S. Graves), vol. 11, Elsevier, 2004, chapter 7,341-421. doi: 10.1016/S0927-0507(03)11007-9. [12] T.-Y. Chung, Incomplete contracts, specific investments, and risk sharing, Review of Economic Studies, 58 (1991), 1031-1042.  doi: 10.2307/2297950. [13] E. Colla, Le contre-pouvoir de la distribution: une synthèse des théories économiques, stratégiques et de marketing des canaux, 2007, http://iut.univ-avignon.fr/mini_site/group/223/COMINDUS/Colla.pdf. [14] D. Corsten and N. Kumar, Do suppliers benefit from collaborative relationships with large retailers? an empirical investigation of the efficient consumer response action, Journal of Marketing, 69 (2005), 80-94.  doi: 10.1509/jmkg.69.3.80.66360. [15] D. M. Desrochers, G. T. Gundach and A. A. Foer, Analysis of antitrust challenges to category captain arrangements, Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 22 (2003), 201-215.  doi: 10.1509/jppm.22.2.201.17635. [16] K. Dupre and T. W. Gruen, The use of category management practices to obtain a sustainable competitive advantage in the fast-moving consumer goods industry, Journal of Business & Industrial Maketing, 19 (2004), 444-459.  doi: 10.1108/08858620410564391. [17] D. Fudenberg, D. K. Levine and J. Tirole, Game-Theoretic Models of Bargaining, chapter Infinite-horizon models of bargaining with one-sided incomplete information, Cambridge University Press, 1985. [18] D. Fudenberg and J. Tirole, Sequential bargaining with incomplete information, Review of Economic Studies, 50 (1983), 221-247.  doi: 10.2307/2297414. [19] S. Ganesan, M. George, S. Jap, R. W. Palmatier and B. Weitz, Supply chain management and retailer performance: emerging trends, issues, and implications for research and practice, Journal of Retailing, 1 (2009), 84-94.  doi: 10.1016/j.jretai.2008.12.001. [20] R. S. Greenberger, UST must pay ＄1.05 billion to a big tobacco competitor, 2003. [21] T. Gruen and R. Shah, Determinants and outcomes of plan and objectivity and implementation in category management relationships, Journal of Retailing, 76 (2000), 483-510.  doi: 10.1016/S0022-4359(00)00041-5. [22] M. Halac, Relational contracts and the value of relationships, American Economic Review, 102 (2012), 750-779. [23] Joint Industry Report on Efficient Consumer Response, Category Management Report: Enhancing Consumer Value in the Grocery Industry, Technical report, Category Management Subcommittee, ECR Best Practices Operating Committee and The Partnering Group Inc, 1995. [24] Kea & Partners, Le magasin bousculé, le magasin toujours star, Technical report, Kea & Partners, 2014. Available from: https://www.kea-partners.com/sites/default/files/keapartners/enquetekeamagasindemain.pdf. [25] B. Klein and J. D. Wright, Antitrust analysis of Category Management, The Supreme Court Economic Review, 17. [26] H. Kotzab, Improving supply chain performance by Efficient Customer Response: a critical comparison of existing ECR approaches, Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 14 (1999), 364-377.  doi: 10.1108/08858629910290111. [27] S. Kurnia and R. B. Johnston, Adoption of efficient consumer response: key issues and challenges in Australia, Supply Chain Management: an International Journal, 8 (2003), 251-262.  doi: 10.1108/13598540310484645. [28] M. Kurtuluş, A. Nakkas and S. Ülküs, The value of category captainship in the presence of manufacturer competition, Production and Operations Management, 23 (2014), 420-430.  doi: 10.1111/poms.12062. [29] M. Kurtuluş and L. B. Toktay, Category captainship: who wins, who loses?, ECR Journal, 4 (2004), 27-33.  doi: 10.2139/ssrn.934970. [30] M. Kurtuluş and L. B. Toktay, Category captainship: Outsourcing retail category management, Working Paper, 2007. Available from: http://ssrn.com/abstract=956577. [31] M. Kurtuluş and L. B. Toktay, Category captainship vs. retailer category management under limited retail shelf space, Production and Operations Management, 20 (2011), 47-56.  doi: 10.1111/j.1937-5956.2010.01141.x. [32] M. Kurtulu¸s and L. B. Toktay, Retail Supply Chain Management, chapter 7-Category captainship practices in the retail industry, 2nd edition, International Series in Operations Research & Management Science, Springer, 2015,147-174. [33] M. Kurtuluş, S. Ülkü, J. P. Dotson and A. Nakkas, The impact of category captainship on the breadth and appeal of a retailer's assortment, Journal of Retailing, 90 (2014), 379-392.  doi: 10.1016/j.jretai.2014.02.001. [34] T. B. Leary, A Second Look at Category Management, Technical report, Federal Trade Commission Report, 2003. Available from: http://www.ftc.gov (accessed March 3,2010). [35] I. Lianos, New kids on the block: Retailer-driven vertical practices and the new regulation of vertical restraints in EU competition law, CPI Antitrust Journal, 2 (2010). [36] A. Lindblom and R. Olkkonen, An analysis of suppliers' roles in category management collaboration, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 15 (2008), 1-8.  doi: 10.1016/j.jretconser.2007.01.002. [37] A. Lindblom, R. Olkkonen, P. Ollila and S. Hyvönen, Suppliers' role in category management: A study of supplier-retailer relationbships in Finland and Sweden, Industrial Marketing Management, 38 (2009), 1006-1013.  doi: 10.1016/j.indmarman.2008.05.004. [38] E. Maskin, Nash equilibrium and welfare optimality, The Review of Economic Studies, 66 (1999), 23-39.  doi: 10.1111/1467-937X.00076. [39] E. Maskin and J. Moore, Implementation and renegotiation, The Review of Economic Studies, 66 (1999), 39-57.  doi: 10.1111/1467-937X.00077. [40] R. Matthews, More promise than performance?, Progressive Grocer, (), 26-28. [41] N. A. Morgan, A. Kaleka and R. Gooner, Focal supplier opportunism in supermarket retailer category management, Journal of Operations Management, 25 (2007), 512-527.  doi: 10.1016/j.jom.2006.05.006. [42] T. O'Toole and B. Donaldson, Relationship performance dimensions of buyer-supplier exchanges, European Journal of Purchasing & Supply Management, 8 (2002), 197-207.  doi: 10.1016/S0969-7012(02)00008-4. [43] A. Rubinstein, Perfect equilibrium in a bargaining model, Econometrica, 54 (1982), 97-109.  doi: 10.2307/1912531. [44] I. Segal and M. Whinston, Exclusive contracts and protection of investments, Rand Journal of Economics, 31 (2000), 603-633. [45] R. Selten, Reexamination of the perfectness concept for equilibrium points in extensive games, International Journal of Game Theory, 4 (1975), 25-55.  doi: 10.1007/BF01766400. [46] R. L. Steiner, Category management - a pervasive new vertical/horizontal format, Antitrust Magazine. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.1805129. [47] U. Subramanian, J. S. Raju, S. K. Dhar and U. Wang, Competitive consequences of using a category captain, Management Science, 56 (2010), 1739-1765.  doi: 10.1287/mnsc.1100.1211. [48] J. Tirole, Cognition and incomplete contracts, American Economic Review, 99 (2009), 265-294.  doi: 10.1257/aer.99.1.265. [49] M. Tosh, What's up with ECR?, Progressive Grocer, (), 8-12. [50] Y. Wang, J. S. Raju and S. K. Dhar, The Choice and Consequences of Using a Category Captain for Category Management, Office of Research, Singapore Management University, 2003.
Timeline of events when retailer and supplier agree on a contract for category captain. If the supplier refuses, the timeline is stopped on this disagreement (not represented here).
Evolution of $w_3=Z^*$ (blue) and of $\Pi_s$ (red, down-sloping) when the mean of the distribution $Z$ $\mu$ increases from 0.1 to 2 and $\sigma=0.15$. The supplier rejects the offer and turns to her second-best option when $\mu>1.25$.
Evolution of $Z^*$ when the standard deviation of the distribution of the belief about the retailer's $z$ increases from 0 to 1.5 and $\mu=0.5$.
Representation of the evolution of the supplier's expected information rent $V$ when $\sigma$ evolves from 0 to 1.5 but $\mu=0.5$.
Representation of the evolution of the supplier's expected information rent $V$ when $\mu$ evolves between 0 and 2 for $\sigma=0.2$ and $\sigma=0.5$.
Table of notations
 Type Notation Definition Retailer α additional investment for monitoring purposes R1 revenue from the category managed by the supplier R2 revenue from the category managed by alternative w1 fee received under full information w2 fee received under complete uncertainty w3 fee received under asymmetric information Πr(.) retailer's profit function Supplier Πs(.) supplier's profit function S1, S2 net revenues from accepted contract or not δs binary decision variable, 1 when agreeing with the retailer z value of $S_1 - S_2$ $f_Z(.), \! F_Z(.)$ pdf and cdf of belief about $z$, with $\mu$ as mean and $\sigma$ as standard deviation V rent retained by the supplier from interaction μr mean of the supplier's belief of the retailer's distribution of $z$
 Type Notation Definition Retailer α additional investment for monitoring purposes R1 revenue from the category managed by the supplier R2 revenue from the category managed by alternative w1 fee received under full information w2 fee received under complete uncertainty w3 fee received under asymmetric information Πr(.) retailer's profit function Supplier Πs(.) supplier's profit function S1, S2 net revenues from accepted contract or not δs binary decision variable, 1 when agreeing with the retailer z value of $S_1 - S_2$ $f_Z(.), \! F_Z(.)$ pdf and cdf of belief about $z$, with $\mu$ as mean and $\sigma$ as standard deviation V rent retained by the supplier from interaction μr mean of the supplier's belief of the retailer's distribution of $z$
Profits from the different information scenarios in the numerical illustration.
 Scenario Retailer Supplier min max min max Full information 3.5 1 Complete ignorance 2 2.5 Asymmetric information 1 2 2.5 3.5
 Scenario Retailer Supplier min max min max Full information 3.5 1 Complete ignorance 2 2.5 Asymmetric information 1 2 2.5 3.5
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