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doi: 10.3934/jimo.2021224
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Pricing strategy and product quality design with platform-investment

1. 

IIF, School of Management, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China

2. 

School of Finance, Anhui University of Finance and Economics, Bengbu 233030, China

3. 

Faculty of Management and Economics, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093, China

* Corresponding author: Gongbing Bi

Received  December 2020 Revised  October 2021 Early access January 2022

Fund Project: The research is supported by the Key Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China [Grant Number: 71731010], the National Natural Science Foundation of China [Grant Number: 72171214, 71571174, 72101003, 71801203], the Key Research and Development Project of Anhui Province [Grant Number: 201904a07020040], the Key Education Department Project of Anhui Province [SK2020A0388] and Key Project of West Anhui University [wxsk201923]

With the development of business, more consumers are quality sensitive and improving the product quality becomes particularly important. We mainly discuss two investment strategies: retailer-investment and platform-investment. Compared with non-investment case, only if consumer sensitivity is not too high, it is profitable for the retailer to select retailer-investment. When both retailer-investment and platform-investment are viable, the choice of investment mechanism depends on the profit-sharing ratio. Particularly, if the ratio is within a certain range, the optimal investment strategy is platform-investment, achieving a triple-win outcome. Besides, to effectively alleviate the contradiction between the retailer's moral hazard problem and the sustainable value-added effect of platform-investment, we further research the contract term. These results give us some meaningful management inspirations in investment mechanism.

Citation: Xiujing Dang, Yang Xu, Gongbing Bi, Lei Qin. Pricing strategy and product quality design with platform-investment. Journal of Industrial and Management Optimization, doi: 10.3934/jimo.2021224
References:
[1]

V. AbhishekK. Jerath and Z. John, Agency selling or reselling? Channel structures in electronic retailing, Management Science, 62 (2016), 2259-2280. 

[2]

E. CaoL. Du and J. Ruan, Financing preferences and performance for an emission-dependent supply chain: Supplier vs. bank, International Journal of Production Economics, 208 (2019), 383-399. 

[3]

C. Chen, Design for the environment: A quality-based model for green product development, Management Science, 47 (2001), 250-263.  doi: 10.1287/mnsc.47.2.250.9841.

[4]

S. ChenH. Lee and K. Moinzadeh, Supply chain coordination with multiple shipments: The optimal inventory subsidizing contracts, Oper. Res., 64 (2016), 1320-1337.  doi: 10.1287/opre.2016.1529.

[5]

Y. ChenN. John and Y. Degan, Application developers' product offering strategies in multi-platform markets, European J. Oper. Res., 273 (2018), 320-333. 

[6]

S. E. ChickH. Mamani and D. Simchi-Levi, Supply chain coordination and influenza vaccination, Oper. Res., 56 (2008), 1493-1506.  doi: 10.1287/opre.1080.0527.

[7]

P. DuL. XuQ. Chen and S. B. Tsai, Pricing competition on innovative product between innovator and entrant imitator facing strategic customers, International Journal of Production Research, 56 (2016), 1806-1824. 

[8]

S. Fatehi and M. R. Wagner, Crowdfunding via revenue-sharing contracts, Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, 21 (2019), 875-893. 

[9]

G. Ferrer and J. M. Swaminathan, Managing new and remanufactured products, Management Science, 51 (2006), 15-26. 

[10]

H. FuM. Liu and B. Chen, Supplier's investment in manufacturer's quality improvement with equity holding, J. Ind. Manag. Optim., 17 (2021), 649-668.  doi: 10.3934/jimo.2019127.

[11]

Y. Gerchak and Y. Wang, Revenue-sharing vs. wholesale-price contracts in assembly systems with random demand, Production & Operations Management, 13 (2009), 23-33. 

[12]

D. Gong, S. Liu, J. Liu and L. Ren, Who benefits from online financing? A sharing economy e-tailing platform perspective, International Journal of Production Economics, 222 (2020), 107490, 1–10. doi: 10.1016/j. ijpe. 2019.09.011.

[13]

X. GuoL. Cheng and J. Liu, Green supply chain contracts with eco-labels issued by the sales platform: Profitability and environmental implications, International Journal of Production Research, 58 (2020), 1485-1504.  doi: 10.1080/00207543.2019.1658911.

[14]

A. Hagiu and J. Wright, Marketplace or reseller?, Management Science, 61 (2016), 184-203. 

[15]

Z. Hong and X. Guo, Green product supply chain contracts considering environmental responsibilities, Omega, 83 (2019), 155-166. 

[16]

Z. HongH. Wang and Y. Gong, Green product design considering functional-product reference, International Journal of Production Economics, 210 (2019), 155-168. 

[17]

B. JiangK. Jerath and K. Srinivasan, Firm strategies in the 'mid tail' of platform-based retailing, Marketing Science, 30 (2011), 757-775. 

[18]

Y. KwarkJ. Chen and S. Raghunathan, Platform or wholesale? A strategic tool for online retailers to benefit from third-party information, Mis Quarterly, 41 (2017), 763-785.  doi: 10.25300/MISQ/2017/41.3.05.

[19]

F. LiC. T. Du and Y. Wei, Offensive pricing strategies for online platforms, International Journal of Production Economics, 216 (2019), 287-304. 

[20]

Y. F. LimY. Wang and Y. Wu, Consignment contracts with revenue sharing for a capacitated retailer and multiple manufacturers, Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, 17 (2012), 527-537. 

[21]

Z. LiuT. D. Anderson and J. M. Cruz, Consumer environmental awareness and competition in two-stage supply chains, European J. Oper. Res., 218 (2012), 602-613.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2011.11.027.

[22]

B. MantinH. Krishnan and T. Dhar, The strategic role of third-party marketplaces in retailing, Production & Operations Management, 23 (2015), 1937-1949. 

[23]

Y. OzinciY. Perlman and S. Westrich, Competition between organic and conventional products with different utilities and shelf lives, International Journal of Production Economics, 191 (2017), 74-84. 

[24]

K. PanosT. Danko and W. Zhao, Supply chain contracting in environments with volatile input prices and frictions, Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, 20 (2018), 130-146. 

[25]

P. RomaU. Panniello and G. Lo Nigro, Sharing economy and incumbents' pricing strategy: The impact of airbnb on the hospitality industry, International Journal of Production Economics, 214 (2019), 17-29. 

[26]

J. K. RyanD. Sun and X. Zhao, Coordinating a supply chain with a manufacturer-owned online channel: A dual channel model under price competition, IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 60 (2013), 247-259. 

[27]

L. SunR. H. TeunterM. Z. Babai and G. Hua, Optimal pricing for ride-sourcing platforms, European J. Oper. Res., 278 (2019), 783-795.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2019.04.044.

[28]

C. WangX. Fan and Z. Yin, Financing online retailers: Bank vs. electronic business platform, equilibrium, and coordinating strategy, European J. Oper. Res., 276 (2019), 343-356.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2019.01.009.

[29]

D. WuL. Yang and D. L. Olson, Green supply chain management under capital constraint, International Journal of Production Economics, 215 (2019), 3-10. 

[30]

T. WuM. ZhangX. TianS. Wang and G. Hua, Spatial differentiation and network externality in pricing mechanism of online car hailing platform, European J. Oper. Res., 219 (2020), 275-283. 

[31]

X. WuZ. Fan and B. Cao, Cost-sharing strategy for carbon emission reduction and sales effort: A Nash game with government subsidy, J. Ind. Manag. Optim., 16 (2020), 1999-2027.  doi: 10.3934/jimo.2019040.

[32]

S. XiaoS. P. SethiM. Liu and S. Ma, Coordinating contracts for a financially constrained supply chain, Omega, 72 (2017), 71-86. 

[33]

B. Yalabik and R. J. Fairchild, Customer, regulatory, and competitive pressure as drivers of environmental innovation, International Journal of Production Economics, 131 (2011), 519-527. 

[34]

X. YanH. Zhao and K. Tang, Requirement or promise? An analysis of the first-mover advantage in quality contracting, Production & Operations Management, 24 (2015), 917-933.  doi: 10.1111/poms.12315.

[35]

Y. YanR. Zhao and Z. Liu, Strategic introduction of the marketplace channel under spillovers from online to offline sales, European J. Oper. Res., 267 (2018), 65-77.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2017.11.011.

[36]

H. Yang and W. Chen, Retailer-driven carbon emission abatement with consumer environmental awareness and carbon tax: Revenue-sharing versus cost-sharing, Omega, 78 (2018), 179-191. 

[37]

A. Yenipazarli, Managing new and remanufactured products to mitigate environmental damage under emissions regulation, European J. Oper. Res., 249 (2016), 117-130.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2015.08.020.

[38]

J. ZhangQ. Cao and X. He, Contract and product quality in platform selling, European J. Oper. Res., 272 (2019), 928-944.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2018.07.023.

[39]

L. ZhangJ. Wang and J. You, Consumer environmental awareness and channel coordination with two substitutable products, European J. Oper. Res., 241 (2015), 63-73.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2014.07.043.

[40]

M. ZhangJ. ZhangT. C. E. Cheng and G. Hua, Why and how do branders sell new products on flash sale platforms?, European J. Oper. Res., 270 (2018), 337-351.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2018.02.051.

[41]

X. Zhao, Coordinating a supply chain system with retailers under both price and inventory competition, Production & Operations Management, 17 (2008), 532-542. 

[42]

W. Zhu and Y. He, Green product design in supply chains under competition, European J. Oper. Res., 258 (2017), 165-180.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2016.08.053.

show all references

References:
[1]

V. AbhishekK. Jerath and Z. John, Agency selling or reselling? Channel structures in electronic retailing, Management Science, 62 (2016), 2259-2280. 

[2]

E. CaoL. Du and J. Ruan, Financing preferences and performance for an emission-dependent supply chain: Supplier vs. bank, International Journal of Production Economics, 208 (2019), 383-399. 

[3]

C. Chen, Design for the environment: A quality-based model for green product development, Management Science, 47 (2001), 250-263.  doi: 10.1287/mnsc.47.2.250.9841.

[4]

S. ChenH. Lee and K. Moinzadeh, Supply chain coordination with multiple shipments: The optimal inventory subsidizing contracts, Oper. Res., 64 (2016), 1320-1337.  doi: 10.1287/opre.2016.1529.

[5]

Y. ChenN. John and Y. Degan, Application developers' product offering strategies in multi-platform markets, European J. Oper. Res., 273 (2018), 320-333. 

[6]

S. E. ChickH. Mamani and D. Simchi-Levi, Supply chain coordination and influenza vaccination, Oper. Res., 56 (2008), 1493-1506.  doi: 10.1287/opre.1080.0527.

[7]

P. DuL. XuQ. Chen and S. B. Tsai, Pricing competition on innovative product between innovator and entrant imitator facing strategic customers, International Journal of Production Research, 56 (2016), 1806-1824. 

[8]

S. Fatehi and M. R. Wagner, Crowdfunding via revenue-sharing contracts, Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, 21 (2019), 875-893. 

[9]

G. Ferrer and J. M. Swaminathan, Managing new and remanufactured products, Management Science, 51 (2006), 15-26. 

[10]

H. FuM. Liu and B. Chen, Supplier's investment in manufacturer's quality improvement with equity holding, J. Ind. Manag. Optim., 17 (2021), 649-668.  doi: 10.3934/jimo.2019127.

[11]

Y. Gerchak and Y. Wang, Revenue-sharing vs. wholesale-price contracts in assembly systems with random demand, Production & Operations Management, 13 (2009), 23-33. 

[12]

D. Gong, S. Liu, J. Liu and L. Ren, Who benefits from online financing? A sharing economy e-tailing platform perspective, International Journal of Production Economics, 222 (2020), 107490, 1–10. doi: 10.1016/j. ijpe. 2019.09.011.

[13]

X. GuoL. Cheng and J. Liu, Green supply chain contracts with eco-labels issued by the sales platform: Profitability and environmental implications, International Journal of Production Research, 58 (2020), 1485-1504.  doi: 10.1080/00207543.2019.1658911.

[14]

A. Hagiu and J. Wright, Marketplace or reseller?, Management Science, 61 (2016), 184-203. 

[15]

Z. Hong and X. Guo, Green product supply chain contracts considering environmental responsibilities, Omega, 83 (2019), 155-166. 

[16]

Z. HongH. Wang and Y. Gong, Green product design considering functional-product reference, International Journal of Production Economics, 210 (2019), 155-168. 

[17]

B. JiangK. Jerath and K. Srinivasan, Firm strategies in the 'mid tail' of platform-based retailing, Marketing Science, 30 (2011), 757-775. 

[18]

Y. KwarkJ. Chen and S. Raghunathan, Platform or wholesale? A strategic tool for online retailers to benefit from third-party information, Mis Quarterly, 41 (2017), 763-785.  doi: 10.25300/MISQ/2017/41.3.05.

[19]

F. LiC. T. Du and Y. Wei, Offensive pricing strategies for online platforms, International Journal of Production Economics, 216 (2019), 287-304. 

[20]

Y. F. LimY. Wang and Y. Wu, Consignment contracts with revenue sharing for a capacitated retailer and multiple manufacturers, Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, 17 (2012), 527-537. 

[21]

Z. LiuT. D. Anderson and J. M. Cruz, Consumer environmental awareness and competition in two-stage supply chains, European J. Oper. Res., 218 (2012), 602-613.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2011.11.027.

[22]

B. MantinH. Krishnan and T. Dhar, The strategic role of third-party marketplaces in retailing, Production & Operations Management, 23 (2015), 1937-1949. 

[23]

Y. OzinciY. Perlman and S. Westrich, Competition between organic and conventional products with different utilities and shelf lives, International Journal of Production Economics, 191 (2017), 74-84. 

[24]

K. PanosT. Danko and W. Zhao, Supply chain contracting in environments with volatile input prices and frictions, Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, 20 (2018), 130-146. 

[25]

P. RomaU. Panniello and G. Lo Nigro, Sharing economy and incumbents' pricing strategy: The impact of airbnb on the hospitality industry, International Journal of Production Economics, 214 (2019), 17-29. 

[26]

J. K. RyanD. Sun and X. Zhao, Coordinating a supply chain with a manufacturer-owned online channel: A dual channel model under price competition, IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 60 (2013), 247-259. 

[27]

L. SunR. H. TeunterM. Z. Babai and G. Hua, Optimal pricing for ride-sourcing platforms, European J. Oper. Res., 278 (2019), 783-795.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2019.04.044.

[28]

C. WangX. Fan and Z. Yin, Financing online retailers: Bank vs. electronic business platform, equilibrium, and coordinating strategy, European J. Oper. Res., 276 (2019), 343-356.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2019.01.009.

[29]

D. WuL. Yang and D. L. Olson, Green supply chain management under capital constraint, International Journal of Production Economics, 215 (2019), 3-10. 

[30]

T. WuM. ZhangX. TianS. Wang and G. Hua, Spatial differentiation and network externality in pricing mechanism of online car hailing platform, European J. Oper. Res., 219 (2020), 275-283. 

[31]

X. WuZ. Fan and B. Cao, Cost-sharing strategy for carbon emission reduction and sales effort: A Nash game with government subsidy, J. Ind. Manag. Optim., 16 (2020), 1999-2027.  doi: 10.3934/jimo.2019040.

[32]

S. XiaoS. P. SethiM. Liu and S. Ma, Coordinating contracts for a financially constrained supply chain, Omega, 72 (2017), 71-86. 

[33]

B. Yalabik and R. J. Fairchild, Customer, regulatory, and competitive pressure as drivers of environmental innovation, International Journal of Production Economics, 131 (2011), 519-527. 

[34]

X. YanH. Zhao and K. Tang, Requirement or promise? An analysis of the first-mover advantage in quality contracting, Production & Operations Management, 24 (2015), 917-933.  doi: 10.1111/poms.12315.

[35]

Y. YanR. Zhao and Z. Liu, Strategic introduction of the marketplace channel under spillovers from online to offline sales, European J. Oper. Res., 267 (2018), 65-77.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2017.11.011.

[36]

H. Yang and W. Chen, Retailer-driven carbon emission abatement with consumer environmental awareness and carbon tax: Revenue-sharing versus cost-sharing, Omega, 78 (2018), 179-191. 

[37]

A. Yenipazarli, Managing new and remanufactured products to mitigate environmental damage under emissions regulation, European J. Oper. Res., 249 (2016), 117-130.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2015.08.020.

[38]

J. ZhangQ. Cao and X. He, Contract and product quality in platform selling, European J. Oper. Res., 272 (2019), 928-944.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2018.07.023.

[39]

L. ZhangJ. Wang and J. You, Consumer environmental awareness and channel coordination with two substitutable products, European J. Oper. Res., 241 (2015), 63-73.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2014.07.043.

[40]

M. ZhangJ. ZhangT. C. E. Cheng and G. Hua, Why and how do branders sell new products on flash sale platforms?, European J. Oper. Res., 270 (2018), 337-351.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2018.02.051.

[41]

X. Zhao, Coordinating a supply chain system with retailers under both price and inventory competition, Production & Operations Management, 17 (2008), 532-542. 

[42]

W. Zhu and Y. He, Green product design in supply chains under competition, European J. Oper. Res., 258 (2017), 165-180.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2016.08.053.

Figure 1.  The impact of $ \lambda $ on decision variables
Figure 2.  The impact of $ \lambda $ and $ \theta $ on balance profit
Figure 3.  The impact of $ \theta $ on supply chain performance
Figure 4.  The impact of $ \theta $ on supply chain performance
Table 1.  Notations
Variables Description
$ U $ The utility that a consumer derives from the product
$ V $ The consumer's utility from the product functional attributes
$ p_{i} $ The unit retail price of the product under different scenarios,
which is a decision variable of the retailer, where $ i=NI,RI,PI $
$ c $ The unit cost of the product
$ \lambda $ Consumer sensitivity to the quality-improvement product
$ e_i $ The product quality-improvement level, which is a decision
variable of the retailer or platform, where $ i=RI,PI $
$ k $ The product quality-improvement cost parameter of the retailer
$ \beta $ The product quality-improvement cost parameter of the platform
$ \theta $ The profit-sharing ratio given by the platform
$ \pi_i $ The retailer's profit, where $ i=NI,RI,PI $
$ \Pi_i $ The platform's profit, where $ i=PI $
Variables Description
$ U $ The utility that a consumer derives from the product
$ V $ The consumer's utility from the product functional attributes
$ p_{i} $ The unit retail price of the product under different scenarios,
which is a decision variable of the retailer, where $ i=NI,RI,PI $
$ c $ The unit cost of the product
$ \lambda $ Consumer sensitivity to the quality-improvement product
$ e_i $ The product quality-improvement level, which is a decision
variable of the retailer or platform, where $ i=RI,PI $
$ k $ The product quality-improvement cost parameter of the retailer
$ \beta $ The product quality-improvement cost parameter of the platform
$ \theta $ The profit-sharing ratio given by the platform
$ \pi_i $ The retailer's profit, where $ i=NI,RI,PI $
$ \Pi_i $ The platform's profit, where $ i=PI $
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