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doi: 10.3934/jimo.2022096
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Research on optimal pricing decisions of the service supply chain oriented to strategic consumers

School of Management, Shanghai University, Shanghai, China

*Corresponding author: Liying Yu

Received  July 2021 Revised  March 2022 Early access June 2022

Fund Project: The second author is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under Grants 12071280

With service elements in the supply chain becoming more and more important, relevant companies and their partners have gradually introduced the service supply chain. At the same time, the continuous improvement of consumption level has significantly improved consumers' consumption awareness, thus becoming the primary choice for consumers to consume strategically based on past purchase experience. To contribute to the service supply chain studies, this paper uses game theory to establish dynamic pricing decision models of a service supply chain by taking consumers' strategic consumption awareness into account. This paper solves the equilibrium pricing strategies of the manufacturer and the service integrator under the centralized and decentralization scenarios, and reveals the effect of consumers' capability trust strength, service cost, product value, product cost on the consumer's strategic behavior, and the equilibrium strategies of the manufacturer and service integrator. This paper finds that improving consumer's capability trust coefficient and product value can restrain consumer's strategic behavior either under the centralized scenario or decentralized scenario. However, the impact degree under the decentralized scenario is less than that under the centralized scenario. Second, increasing the product value cannot positively affect consumer's strategic behavior when the product value is higher than a particular value whether under the centralized scenario or decentralized scenario. With the increase of consumer's capability trust strength, the intensity of consumer's strategic behavior will decrease, which will cause more consumers to purchase products in the first stage, and will finally cause a significant impact on the pricing strategies of the manufacturer and the service integrator.

Citation: Ziyuan Zhang, Liying Yu. Research on optimal pricing decisions of the service supply chain oriented to strategic consumers. Journal of Industrial and Management Optimization, doi: 10.3934/jimo.2022096
References:
[1]

J. Aspara and H. Tikkanen, Creating novel consumer value vs capturing value: Strategic emphases and financial performance implications, Journal of Business Research, 66 (2013), 593-602. 

[2]

R. Ahmadi and F. Iravani amd H. Mamani, Supply chain coordination in the presence of gray markets and strategic consumers, Production and Operations Management, 18 (2017), 252-272. 

[3]

D. Besanko and W. L. Winston, Optimal price skimming by a monopolist facing rational consumers, Management Science, 36 (1990), 555-567.  doi: 10.1287/mnsc.36.5.555.

[4]

G. P. Cachon and R. Swinney, Purchasing, pricing, and quick response in the presence of strategic consumers, Management Science, 55 (2009), 497-511. 

[5]

M. A. Cohen and S. Whang, Competing in product and service:A product life-cycle model, Management Science, 43 (1997), 535-545. 

[6]

Y. X. Chen and Z. J. Zhang, Dynamic targeted pricing with strategic consumer, International Journal of Industrial Organization, 27 (2009), 43-50. 

[7]

Z. S. Chen and S. I. Su, Photovoltaic supply chain coordination with strategic consumers in China, Renewable Energy, 68 (2014), 236-244. 

[8]

H. Demirkan and H. K. Cheng, The risk and information sharing of application services supply chain, European Journal of Operational Research, 187 (2008), 765-784.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2006.03.060.

[9]

S. Dasu and C. Tong, Dynamic pricing when consumers are strategic: Analysis of posted and contingent pricing schemes, European Journal of Operational Research, 204 (2010), 662-671. 

[10]

S. Gupta and R. Loulou, Process innovation, product differentiation and channel structure: Strategic incentives in a duopoly, Marketing Science, 17 (1998), 301-316. 

[11]

Z. L. Guo and J. Q. Chen, Multigeneration product diffusion in the presence of strategic consumers, Information Systems Research, 29 (2018), 206-224. 

[12]

C. W. L. Hart, The power of unconditional service guarantees, Harvard Business Review, 66 (1998), 54-62. 

[13]

H. S. Hwang, Design of supply-chain logistics system considering service level, Computers and Industrial Engineering, 43 (2002), 283-297. 

[14]

M. L. HeJ. P. XieX. H. WuQ. F. Hu and Y. Dai, Capability coordination in automobile logistics service supply chain based on reliability, Science Direct, 136 (2016), 325-333. 

[15]

P. HeY. HeC. M. ShiH. Xu and L. Zhou, Cost-sharing contract design in a low-carbon service supply chain, Computers and Industrial Engineering, 139 (2020), 203-220. 

[16]

T. Hwang and S. T. Kim, Balancing in-house and outsourced logistics: Effects on supply chain agility and firm performance, Service Business, 13 (2019), 531-556. 

[17]

U. Juneho, The impact of supply chain agility on business performance in a high level customization environment, Operations Management Research, 10 (2017), 10-19. 

[18]

M. KhanM. HussainA. Papastathopoulos and I. Manikas, Trust, information sharing and uncertainty: An empirical in vestigation into their impact on sustainability in service supply chains in the United Arab Emirates, Sustainable Development, 22 (2018), 870-878. 

[19]

E. LeksonoSu parno and I. Vanany, Using DEMMATEL approach to develop relationships of performance indicators on sustainable service only supply chain performance measurement, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 37 (2018), 101-108. 

[20]

J. C. LiuX. Zhai and L. H. Chen, Optimal pricing strategy under trade-in program in the presence of strategic consumers, Omega-International Journal of Management Science, 84 (2019), 1-17. 

[21]

J. K. LiB. Li and N. L. Wei, Country-of-origin fit's effect on consumer product evaluation in cross-border strategic brand alliance, Journal of Business Research, 66 (2013), 354-363. 

[22]

K. LahtinenY. C. GuanN. Li and A. Toppinen, Biodiversity and ecosystem services in supply chain management in the global forest industry, Ecosystem Services, 21 (2016), 130-140. 

[23]

Q. LiuRy zin and J. Van Garrett, Strategic capacity rationing to induce early purchases, Management Science, 54 (2008), 1115-1131. 

[24]

W. Liu and Y. Wang, Quality control game model in logistics service supply chain based on different combinations of risk attitude, International Journal of Production Economics, 161 (2015), 181-191. 

[25]

J. H. MaS. Q. Hou and B. S. Bao, Short-term and long-term impacts of a quick response strategy on a dual channel apparel supply chain, International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, 29 (2019), 190-205.  doi: 10.1142/S0218127419501906.

[26]

R. MaullA. Smart and L. Liang, A process model of product service supply chains, Production Planning and Control, 25 (2014), 1091-1106.  doi: 10.1080/09537287.2013.808840.

[27]

A. PrasadVe nkatesh and V. Mahajan, Product bundling or reserved product pricing? Price discrimination with myopic and strategic consumers, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 1 (2015), 1-8. 

[28]

G. Piccoli and R. Lloyd, Strategic impacts of IT-enabled consumer power: Insight from internet distribution in the U.S. lodging industry, Information and Management, 47 (2010), 333-340. 

[29]

Y. Papanastasiou and N. Savva, Dynamic pricing in the presence of social learning and strategic consumers, Management Science, 63 (2016), 919-939. 

[30]

B. SakunC. Y. Wong and W. Y. Wong, Service supply chain management process capabilities: Measurement development, International Journal of Production Economics, 193 (2017), 1-11. 

[31]

I. Stancu and G. M. Meghisan, Strategic planning based on consumers' decision-making process towards mobile telecommunications operators, Procedia Economics and Finance, 15 (2014), 1528-1534. 

[32]

N. SaccaniP. Johansson and M. Perona, Configuring the after-sales service supply chain: A multiple case study, International Journal of Production Economics, 110 (2007), 52-69. 

[33]

X. Su and F. Zhang, Strategic customer behavior, commitment, and supply chain performance, Management Science, 54 (2008), 1759-1773. 

[34]

X. T. Tang, S. J. Fang and F. Cheng, Strategic interactions in service supply chain with horizontal competition, Original Paper, 22 (2014), 469-488. doi: 10.1007/s11750-012-0265-5.

[35]

T. Vera and X. B. Zheng, Monopoly production and pricing of finitely durable goods with strategic consumers' fluctuating willingness to pay, International Journal of Production Economics, 154 (2014), 217-232. 

[36]

J. Wirtz and D. Kum, Consumer cheating on service guarantees, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 32 (2004), 159-175. 

[37]

J. F. WangX. Zhao and J. Li, Group buying: A strategic form of consumer collective, Journal of Retailing, 89 (2013), 338-351. 

[38]

Y. L. WangS. W. WallancdB. Shen and T. M. Choi, Service supply chain management: A review of operational models. A framework for cost-service analysis in differentiation of logistics services, International Journal of Production Economics, 45 (1996), 131-137. 

[39]

J. Y. YanY. l. Guo and L. Schatzerg, Coordination mechanism of IT service supply chain: An economic perspective, Electronic Market, 22 (2012), 95-103. 

[40]

D. ZhaoX. M. ZhangT. H. RenH. Y. Fu and E. G. Deniz, Optimal pricing strategies in a product and service supply chain with extended warranty service competition considering retailer fairness concern, Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 56 (2019), 401-410.  doi: 10.1155/2019/8657463.

[41]

K. ZhuR. Q. Zhang and F. Tsung, Pushing quality improvement along supply chains, Management Science, 53 (2007), 421-436. 

[42]

X. Zhang, X. Han, X. Liu, et al. The pricing of product and value-added service under information asymmetry: A product life cycle perspective, International Journal of Production Research, 53 (2015), 25-40. doi: 10.1007/s10479-013-1409-1.

show all references

References:
[1]

J. Aspara and H. Tikkanen, Creating novel consumer value vs capturing value: Strategic emphases and financial performance implications, Journal of Business Research, 66 (2013), 593-602. 

[2]

R. Ahmadi and F. Iravani amd H. Mamani, Supply chain coordination in the presence of gray markets and strategic consumers, Production and Operations Management, 18 (2017), 252-272. 

[3]

D. Besanko and W. L. Winston, Optimal price skimming by a monopolist facing rational consumers, Management Science, 36 (1990), 555-567.  doi: 10.1287/mnsc.36.5.555.

[4]

G. P. Cachon and R. Swinney, Purchasing, pricing, and quick response in the presence of strategic consumers, Management Science, 55 (2009), 497-511. 

[5]

M. A. Cohen and S. Whang, Competing in product and service:A product life-cycle model, Management Science, 43 (1997), 535-545. 

[6]

Y. X. Chen and Z. J. Zhang, Dynamic targeted pricing with strategic consumer, International Journal of Industrial Organization, 27 (2009), 43-50. 

[7]

Z. S. Chen and S. I. Su, Photovoltaic supply chain coordination with strategic consumers in China, Renewable Energy, 68 (2014), 236-244. 

[8]

H. Demirkan and H. K. Cheng, The risk and information sharing of application services supply chain, European Journal of Operational Research, 187 (2008), 765-784.  doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2006.03.060.

[9]

S. Dasu and C. Tong, Dynamic pricing when consumers are strategic: Analysis of posted and contingent pricing schemes, European Journal of Operational Research, 204 (2010), 662-671. 

[10]

S. Gupta and R. Loulou, Process innovation, product differentiation and channel structure: Strategic incentives in a duopoly, Marketing Science, 17 (1998), 301-316. 

[11]

Z. L. Guo and J. Q. Chen, Multigeneration product diffusion in the presence of strategic consumers, Information Systems Research, 29 (2018), 206-224. 

[12]

C. W. L. Hart, The power of unconditional service guarantees, Harvard Business Review, 66 (1998), 54-62. 

[13]

H. S. Hwang, Design of supply-chain logistics system considering service level, Computers and Industrial Engineering, 43 (2002), 283-297. 

[14]

M. L. HeJ. P. XieX. H. WuQ. F. Hu and Y. Dai, Capability coordination in automobile logistics service supply chain based on reliability, Science Direct, 136 (2016), 325-333. 

[15]

P. HeY. HeC. M. ShiH. Xu and L. Zhou, Cost-sharing contract design in a low-carbon service supply chain, Computers and Industrial Engineering, 139 (2020), 203-220. 

[16]

T. Hwang and S. T. Kim, Balancing in-house and outsourced logistics: Effects on supply chain agility and firm performance, Service Business, 13 (2019), 531-556. 

[17]

U. Juneho, The impact of supply chain agility on business performance in a high level customization environment, Operations Management Research, 10 (2017), 10-19. 

[18]

M. KhanM. HussainA. Papastathopoulos and I. Manikas, Trust, information sharing and uncertainty: An empirical in vestigation into their impact on sustainability in service supply chains in the United Arab Emirates, Sustainable Development, 22 (2018), 870-878. 

[19]

E. LeksonoSu parno and I. Vanany, Using DEMMATEL approach to develop relationships of performance indicators on sustainable service only supply chain performance measurement, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 37 (2018), 101-108. 

[20]

J. C. LiuX. Zhai and L. H. Chen, Optimal pricing strategy under trade-in program in the presence of strategic consumers, Omega-International Journal of Management Science, 84 (2019), 1-17. 

[21]

J. K. LiB. Li and N. L. Wei, Country-of-origin fit's effect on consumer product evaluation in cross-border strategic brand alliance, Journal of Business Research, 66 (2013), 354-363. 

[22]

K. LahtinenY. C. GuanN. Li and A. Toppinen, Biodiversity and ecosystem services in supply chain management in the global forest industry, Ecosystem Services, 21 (2016), 130-140. 

[23]

Q. LiuRy zin and J. Van Garrett, Strategic capacity rationing to induce early purchases, Management Science, 54 (2008), 1115-1131. 

[24]

W. Liu and Y. Wang, Quality control game model in logistics service supply chain based on different combinations of risk attitude, International Journal of Production Economics, 161 (2015), 181-191. 

[25]

J. H. MaS. Q. Hou and B. S. Bao, Short-term and long-term impacts of a quick response strategy on a dual channel apparel supply chain, International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, 29 (2019), 190-205.  doi: 10.1142/S0218127419501906.

[26]

R. MaullA. Smart and L. Liang, A process model of product service supply chains, Production Planning and Control, 25 (2014), 1091-1106.  doi: 10.1080/09537287.2013.808840.

[27]

A. PrasadVe nkatesh and V. Mahajan, Product bundling or reserved product pricing? Price discrimination with myopic and strategic consumers, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 1 (2015), 1-8. 

[28]

G. Piccoli and R. Lloyd, Strategic impacts of IT-enabled consumer power: Insight from internet distribution in the U.S. lodging industry, Information and Management, 47 (2010), 333-340. 

[29]

Y. Papanastasiou and N. Savva, Dynamic pricing in the presence of social learning and strategic consumers, Management Science, 63 (2016), 919-939. 

[30]

B. SakunC. Y. Wong and W. Y. Wong, Service supply chain management process capabilities: Measurement development, International Journal of Production Economics, 193 (2017), 1-11. 

[31]

I. Stancu and G. M. Meghisan, Strategic planning based on consumers' decision-making process towards mobile telecommunications operators, Procedia Economics and Finance, 15 (2014), 1528-1534. 

[32]

N. SaccaniP. Johansson and M. Perona, Configuring the after-sales service supply chain: A multiple case study, International Journal of Production Economics, 110 (2007), 52-69. 

[33]

X. Su and F. Zhang, Strategic customer behavior, commitment, and supply chain performance, Management Science, 54 (2008), 1759-1773. 

[34]

X. T. Tang, S. J. Fang and F. Cheng, Strategic interactions in service supply chain with horizontal competition, Original Paper, 22 (2014), 469-488. doi: 10.1007/s11750-012-0265-5.

[35]

T. Vera and X. B. Zheng, Monopoly production and pricing of finitely durable goods with strategic consumers' fluctuating willingness to pay, International Journal of Production Economics, 154 (2014), 217-232. 

[36]

J. Wirtz and D. Kum, Consumer cheating on service guarantees, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 32 (2004), 159-175. 

[37]

J. F. WangX. Zhao and J. Li, Group buying: A strategic form of consumer collective, Journal of Retailing, 89 (2013), 338-351. 

[38]

Y. L. WangS. W. WallancdB. Shen and T. M. Choi, Service supply chain management: A review of operational models. A framework for cost-service analysis in differentiation of logistics services, International Journal of Production Economics, 45 (1996), 131-137. 

[39]

J. Y. YanY. l. Guo and L. Schatzerg, Coordination mechanism of IT service supply chain: An economic perspective, Electronic Market, 22 (2012), 95-103. 

[40]

D. ZhaoX. M. ZhangT. H. RenH. Y. Fu and E. G. Deniz, Optimal pricing strategies in a product and service supply chain with extended warranty service competition considering retailer fairness concern, Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 56 (2019), 401-410.  doi: 10.1155/2019/8657463.

[41]

K. ZhuR. Q. Zhang and F. Tsung, Pushing quality improvement along supply chains, Management Science, 53 (2007), 421-436. 

[42]

X. Zhang, X. Han, X. Liu, et al. The pricing of product and value-added service under information asymmetry: A product life cycle perspective, International Journal of Production Research, 53 (2015), 25-40. doi: 10.1007/s10479-013-1409-1.

Figure 1.  Schematic diagram of the relationship between relevant entities in the service supply chain
Figure 2.  The effect of $ c_s $ on $ B $
Figure 3.  The effect of $ c_m $ on $ B $
Figure 4.  The effect of $ \epsilon $ on $ B $
Figure 5.  The effect of $ V_1 $ on $ B $
Figure 6.  The effect of $ \epsilon $ on $ Q $ under centralized scenario
Figure 7.  The effect of $ \epsilon $ on $ Q $ under decentralized scenario
Figure 8.  The effect of $ \epsilon $ on $ Q $
Figure 9.  The effect of $ \epsilon $ on $ Q $
Figure 10.  The effect of $ V_1 $ on $ Q $
Figure 11.  The effect of $ \epsilon $ on $ P $ under centralized scenario
Figure 12.  The effect of $ \epsilon $ on $ P $
Figure 13.  The effect of $ \epsilon $ on $ P $ under decentralized scenario
Figure 14.  The effect of $ \epsilon $ on $ w $ under decentralized scenario
Figure 15.  The effect of $ V_1 $ on $ P $
Figure 16.  The effect of $ V_1 $ on $ w $
Figure 17.  The effect of $ \epsilon $ on $ \pi_{SC}^{C} $ under centralized scenario
Figure 18.  The effect of $ \epsilon $ on $ \pi^{D} $ under decentralized scenario
Figure 19.  The effect of $ \epsilon $ on $ \pi_{SC} $
Table 1.  Some literature most relevant to this paper
Author Service supply chain Strategic consumer Capability trust
Liu et al.[20] $\surd$
Ma et al.[25] $\surd$
Zhang et al.[42] $\surd$
Cohen et al.[5] $\surd$
Su et al.[33] $\surd$
This paper $\surd$ $\surd$ $\surd$
Author Service supply chain Strategic consumer Capability trust
Liu et al.[20] $\surd$
Ma et al.[25] $\surd$
Zhang et al.[42] $\surd$
Cohen et al.[5] $\surd$
Su et al.[33] $\surd$
This paper $\surd$ $\surd$ $\surd$
Table 2.  Major parameters and variables
Parameters Meaning description
$ w $ Product wholesale price
$ P $ Product service system price
$ p(p_s) $ Product(Service)price
$ c_s(c_m) $ Unit service(product)cost
$ V $ Consumer valuation of the product and service
$ V_0 $ Threshold of waiting behavior for the strategic consumer
$ V_1 $ The highest value of product service system
$ \epsilon $ Capability trust coefficient
$ N $ Total number of potential consumers
$ B $ Intensity of consumer strategic behavior
$ Q $ Sales volume
$ Q_t $ Total sales volume of the two stages
$ \pi_{M}(\pi_{I})(\pi_{SC}) $ Profit of the manufacture(the service integrator)(the supply chain)
Parameters Meaning description
$ w $ Product wholesale price
$ P $ Product service system price
$ p(p_s) $ Product(Service)price
$ c_s(c_m) $ Unit service(product)cost
$ V $ Consumer valuation of the product and service
$ V_0 $ Threshold of waiting behavior for the strategic consumer
$ V_1 $ The highest value of product service system
$ \epsilon $ Capability trust coefficient
$ N $ Total number of potential consumers
$ B $ Intensity of consumer strategic behavior
$ Q $ Sales volume
$ Q_t $ Total sales volume of the two stages
$ \pi_{M}(\pi_{I})(\pi_{SC}) $ Profit of the manufacture(the service integrator)(the supply chain)
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