Advanced Search
Article Contents
Article Contents

Identifying requirements for the invasion of a tick species and tick-borne pathogen through TICKSIM

Abstract Related Papers Cited by
  • Ticks and tick-borne diseases have been on the move throughout the United State over the past twenty years. We use an agent-based model, TICKSIM, to identify the key parameters that determine the success of invasion of the tick and if that is successful, the succees of the tick-borne pathogen. We find that if an area has competent hosts, an initial population of ten ticks is predicted to always establish a new population. The establishment of the tick-borne pathogen depends on three parameters: the initial prevalence in the ten founding ticks, the probability that a tick infects the longer-lived hosts and the probability that a tick infects the shorter-lived hosts. These results indicate that the transmission rates to hosts in the newly established area can be used to predict the potential risk of disease to humans.
    Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary: 92B05; Secondary: 90B15.


    \begin{equation} \\ \end{equation}
  • [1]

    B. E. Anderson, K. G. Sims, J. G. Olson, J. E. Childs and J. F. Piesman, Amblyomma americanum: A potential vector of human ehrlichiosis, American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 49 (1993), 239-244.


    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Summary of notifiable diseases - United States, 2006, MMWR, 55 (2008), 1-94.


    J. E. Childs and C. D. Paddock, The ascendancy of Amblyomma americanum as a vector of pathogens affecting humans in the United States, Annual Review of Entomology, 48 (2003), 307-337.


    F. S. Dahlgren, E. J. Mandel, J. W. Krebs, R. F. Massung and J. H. McQuiston, Increasing Incidence of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the United States, 2000-2007, American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 85 (2011), 124-131.


    S. A. Ewing, J. E. Dawson, A. A. Kocan, R. W. Barker, C. K. Warner, R. J. Panciera, J. C. Fox, K. M. Kocan and E. F. Bouin, Experimental transmission of Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Rickettsiales: Ehrlichieae) among white-tailed deer by Amblyomma americanum(Acari: Ixodidae), Journal of Medical Entomology, 32 (1995), 368-374.


    D. B. Fishbein, J. E. Dawson and L. E. Robinson, Human ehrlichiosis in the United States, 1985 to 1990, Annals of Internal Medicine, 120 (1994), 736-743.


    H. D. Gaff, Preliminary analysis of an agent based model for a tick-borne disease, Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering, 8 (2011), 463-473.doi: 10.3934/mbe.2011.8.463.


    V. Grimm, U. Berger, D. L. DeAngelis, J. G. Polhill, J. Giske and S. F. Railsback, The ODD protocol: A review and first update, Ecological Modelling, 221 (2010), 2760-2768.doi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2010.08.019.


    J. Goodman, D. Dennis and D. Sonenshine, Tick borne diseases of humans, American Society of Microbiology, (2005).doi: 10.1086/504876.


    H. A. Merten and L. A. Durden, A state-by-state survey of ticks recorded from humans in the United States, Journal of Vector Ecology, 25 (2000), 102-113.


    C. D. Paddock and J. E. Childs, Ehrlichia chaffeensis: A prototypical emerging pathogen, Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 16 (2003), 37-64.


    C. D. Paddock and M. J. Yabsley, Ecological havoc, the rise of white-tailed deer, and the emergence of Amblyomma americanum-associated zoonoses in the United States, Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, 315 (2007), 289-324.


    C. D. Patrick and J. A. Hair, White-tailed deer utilization of different habitats and its influence on lone star tick population, Journal of Parasitology, 64 (1978), 1100-1106.doi: 10.2307/3279735.


    E. Y. Stromdahl, M. P. Randolph, J. J. O'Brien, and A. G. Gutierrez, Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Rickettsiales: Ehrlichieae) infection in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, Journal of Medical Entomology, 37 (2000), 349-356.

  • 加载中

Article Metrics

HTML views() PDF downloads(45) Cited by(0)

Access History

Other Articles By Authors



    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint