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Dynamical analysis for a hepatitis B transmission model with immigration and infection age

  • * Corresponding author: Robert Smith?

    * Corresponding author: Robert Smith?
SZ was supported by the National Science Foundation of China (Grant numbers 11501443, 11571275 and 11701445). RS? is supported by an NSERC Discovery Grant.
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  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is responsible for an estimated 378 million infections worldwide and 620, 000 deaths annually. Safe and effective vaccination programs have been available for decades, but coverage is limited due to economic and social factors. We investigate the effect of immigration and infection age on HBV transmission dynamics, incorporating age-dependent immigration flow and vertical transmission. The mathematical model can be used to describe HBV transmission in highly endemic regions with vertical transmission and migration of infected HBV individuals. Due to the effects of immigration, there is no disease-free equilibrium or reproduction number. We show that the unique endemic equilibrium exists only when immigration into the infective class is measurable. The smoothness and attractiveness of the solution semiflow are analyzed, and boundedness and uniform persistence are determined. Global stability of the unique endemic equilibrium is shown by a Lyapunov functional for a special case.

    Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary: 92B05; Secondary: 35A99.


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  • Figure 1.  Flow diagram of the age-structured HBV transmission model (1)

    Table 1.  Definitions of parameters used in model (1)

    $\Lambda_S$ rate of recruitment into the susceptible compartment,
    including unsuccessfully immunized birth and immigration
    $\Lambda_k$ immigration rate into class $k$ ($k=E, R$)
    $\Lambda_j(a)$ age-dependent immigration rate into class $j$ ($j=i, c$)
    $\mu_k$ per capital death rate for class $k$ ($k=S, E, R$)
    $\mu_j(a)$ age-dependent death rate for class $j$ ($j=i, c$)
    $b$ birth rate
    $\omega$ proportion of newborns who are unsuccessfully immunized
    $\sigma$ transfer rate from exposed to acute infection
    $p$ vaccination rate
    $\alpha$ degree of infectiousness of carriers relative to acute infections ($\alpha>0$)
    $\beta(a)$ age-dependent transmission coefficient
    $v(a)$ age-dependent rate of children born to carrier mothers
    who become HBV carriers
    $\gamma_1(a)$ age-dependent transfer rate from acute to immunized or carrier class
    $\gamma_2(a)$ age-dependent transfer rate from carrier to immunized class
    $q(a)$ age-dependent progression from acute infection to carrier class
    $\theta(a)$ age-dependent HBV-induced death rate
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