# American Institute of Mathematical Sciences

March  2019, 9(1): 1-38. doi: 10.3934/mcrf.2019001

## Optimal control of the coefficient for the regional fractional $p$-Laplace equation: Approximation and convergence

 1 Department of Mathematical Sciences, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA 2 University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, Department of Mathematics, College of Natural Sciences, 17 University AVE. STE 1701, San Juan PR 00925-2537, USA

* Corresponding author: Harbir Antil

Received  April 2017 Revised  March 2018 Published  August 2018

Fund Project: The work of the first author is partially supported by NSF grant DMS-1521590. The work of the second author is partially supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) under the Award No: FA9550-15-1-0027.

In this paper we study optimal control problems with the regional fractional $p$-Laplace equation, of order $s \in \left( {0,1} \right)$ and $p \in \left[ {2,\infty } \right)$, as constraints over a bounded open set with Lipschitz continuous boundary. The control, which fulfills the pointwise box constraints, is given by the coefficient of the regional fractional $p$-Laplace operator. We show existence and uniqueness of solutions to the state equations and existence of solutions to the optimal control problems. We prove that the regional fractional $p$-Laplacian approaches the standard $p$-Laplacian as $s$ approaches 1. In this sense, this fractional $p$-Laplacian can be considered degenerate like the standard $p$-Laplacian. To overcome this degeneracy, we introduce a regularization for the regional fractional $p$-Laplacian. We show existence and uniqueness of solutions to the regularized state equation and existence of solutions to the regularized optimal control problem. We also prove several auxiliary results for the regularized problem which are of independent interest. We conclude with the convergence of the regularized solutions.

Citation: Harbir Antil, Mahamadi Warma. Optimal control of the coefficient for the regional fractional $p$-Laplace equation: Approximation and convergence. Mathematical Control and Related Fields, 2019, 9 (1) : 1-38. doi: 10.3934/mcrf.2019001
##### References:
 [1] D. Adams and L. Hedberg, Function Spaces and Potential Theory, vol. 314 of Grundlehren der Mathematischen Wissenschaften [Fundamental Principles of Mathematical Sciences], Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996. doi: 10.1007/978-3-662-03282-4. [2] L. Ambrosio, N. Fusco and D. Pallara, Functions of Bounded Variation and Free Discontinuity Problems, Oxford Mathematical Monographs, The Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, New York, 2000. [3] H. Antil and S. Bartels, Spectral approximation of fractional PDEs in image processing and phase field modeling, Comput. Methods Appl. Math., 17 (2017), 661-678.  doi: 10.1515/cmam-2017-0039. [4] H. Antil, J. Pfefferer and M. Warma, A note on semilinear fractional elliptic equation: analysis and discretization, Math. Model. Numer. Anal. (ESAIM: M2AN), 51 (2017), 2049-2067. [5] V. Benci, P. D'Avenia, D. Fortunato and L. Pisani, Solitons in several space dimensions:Derrick's problem and infinitely many solutions, Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal., 154 (2000), 297-324.  doi: 10.1007/s002050000101. [6] C. Bjorland, L. Caffarelli and A. Figalli, Nonlocal tug-of-war and the infinity fractional Laplacian, Comm. Pure Appl. Math., 65 (2012), 337-380.  doi: 10.1002/cpa.21379. [7] K. Bogdan, K. Burdzy and Z.-Q. Chen, Censored stable processes, Probab. Theory Related Fields, 127 (2003), 89-152.  doi: 10.1007/s00440-003-0275-1. [8] J. Bourgain, H. Brezis and P. Mironescu, Another look at sobolev spaces, in Optimal Control and Partial Differential Equation, Conference, 2001,439-455. [9] J. Bourgain, H. Brezis and P. Mironescu, Limiting embedding theorems for $W^{s,p}$ when $s\uparrow1$ and applications, J. Anal. Math., 87 (2002), 77-101, Dedicated to the memory of Thomas H.  doi: 10.1007/BF02868470. [10] L. Brasco, E. Parini and M. Squassina, Stability of variational eigenvalues for the fractional $p$-Laplacian, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst., 36 (2016), 1813-1845.  doi: 10.3934/dcds.2016.36.1813. [11] L. Caffarelli, Non-local diffusions, drifts and game, Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations, Abel Sym- posia, 7 (2012), 37-52. [12] L. Caffarelli and L. Silvestre, An extension problem related to the fractional Laplacian, Comm. Partial Differential Equations, 32 (2007), 1245-1260.  doi: 10.1080/03605300600987306. [13] L. Caffarelli, J.-M. Roquejoffre and Y. Sire, Variational problems for free boundaries for the fractional Laplacian, J. Eur. Math. Soc. (JEMS), 12 (2010), 1151-1179.  doi: 10.4171/JEMS/226. [14] L. Caffarelli, S. Salsa and L. Silvestre, Regularity estimates for the solution and the free boundary of the obstacle problem for the fractional Laplacian, Invent. Math., 171 (2008), 425-461.  doi: 10.1007/s00222-007-0086-6. [15] E. Casas, P. Kogut and G. Leugering, Approximation of optimal control problems in the coefficient for the $p$-Laplace equation. I. Convergence result, SIAM J. Control Optim., 54 (2016), 1406-1422.  doi: 10.1137/15M1028108. [16] A. Di Castro., T. Kuusi. and G. Palatucci, Nonlocal Harnack inequalities, J. Funct. Anal., 267 (2014), 1807-1836.  doi: 10.1016/j.jfa.2014.05.023. [17] A. Di Castro., T. Kuusi and G. Palatucci, Local behavior of fractional $p$-minimizers, Ann. Inst. H. Poincaré Anal. Non Linéaire, 33 (2016), 1279-1299.  doi: 10.1016/j.anihpc.2015.04.003. [18] E. Di Nezza, G. Palatucci and E. Valdinoci, Hitchhiker's guide to the fractional Sobolev spaces, Bull. Sci. Math., 136 (2012), 521-573.  doi: 10.1016/j.bulsci.2011.12.004. [19] E. DiBenedetto, Degenerate Parabolic Equations, Universitext, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1993. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4612-0895-2. [20] L. Diening, A. Prohl and M. Růžička, Semi-implicit Euler scheme for generalized Newtonian fluids, SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 44 (2006), 1172-1190 (electronic).  doi: 10.1137/050634335. [21] L. Diening and S. Schwarzacher, Global gradient estimates for the $p$(·)-Laplacian, Nonlinear Anal., 106 (2014), 70-85.  doi: 10.1016/j.na.2014.04.006. [22] P. Drábek and J. Milota, Methods of Nonlinear Analysis, 2nd edition, Birkhäuser Advanced Texts: Basler Lehrbücher. [Birkhäuser Advanced Texts: Basel Textbooks], Birkhäuser/Springer Basel AG, Basel, 2013, Applications to differential equations. doi: 10.1007/978-3-0348-0387-8. [23] A. Elmoataz, M. Toutain and D. Tenbrinck, On the $p$-Laplacian and ∞-Laplacian on graphs with applications in image and data processing, SIAM J. Imaging Sci., 8 (2015), 2412-2451.  doi: 10.1137/15M1022793. [24] L. Evans, Partial differential equations and Monge-Kantorovich mass transfer, in Current Developments in Mathematics, 1997 (Cambridge, MA), Int. Press, Boston, MA, 1999, 65-126. [25] C.G. Gal and M. Warma, On some degenerate non-local parabolic equation associated with the fractional $p$-Laplacian, Dyn. Partial Differ. Equ., 14 (2017), 47-77.  doi: 10.4310/DPDE.2017.v14.n1.a4. [26] P. Grisvard, Elliptic Problems in Nonsmooth Domains, vol. 24 of Monographs and Studies in Mathematics, Pitman (Advanced Publishing Program), Boston, MA, 1985. [27] A. Jonsson and H. Wallin, Function spaces on subsets of ${\bf R}^n$, Math. Rep., 2 (1984), xiv+221pp. [28] O. Kupenko and R. Manzo, Approximation of an optimal control problem in coefficient for variational inequality with anisotropic p-Laplacian, NoDEA Nonlinear Differential Equations Appl., 23 (2016), Art. 35, 18pp. doi: 10.1007/s00030-016-0387-9. [29] T. Kuusi, G. Mingione and Y. Sire, Nonlocal equations with measure data, Comm. Math. Phys., 337 (2015), 1317-1368.  doi: 10.1007/s00220-015-2356-2. [30] J.-L. Lions and E. Magenes, Non-homogeneous Boundary Value Problems and Applications, Vol. I, Springer-Verlag, New York-Heidelberg, 1972, Translated from the French by P. Kenneth, Die Grundlehren der mathematischen Wissenschaften, Band 181. [31] F. Mainardi, Fractional Calculus and Waves in Linear Viscoelasticity, Imperial College Press, London, 2010, An introduction to mathematical models. doi: 10.1142/9781848163300. [32] V. Maz'ya and S. Poborchi, Differentiable Functions on Bad Domains, World Scientific Publishing Co., Inc., River Edge, NJ, 1997. [33] F. Murat, Un contre-exemple pour le problème du contrôle dans les coefficients, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Sér. A-B, 273 (1971), A708-A711. [34] F. Murat, Contre-exemples pour divers problèmes où le contrôle intervient dans les coefficients, Ann. Mat. Pura Appl. (4), 112 (1977), 49-68. [35] F. Murat and L. Tartar, H-convergence, in Topics in the Mathematical Modelling of Composite Materials, vol. 31 of Progr. Nonlinear Differential Equations Appl., Birkhäuser Boston, Boston, MA, 1997, 21-43. [36] I. Pan and S. Das, Intelligent Fractional Order Systems and Control: An Introduction, vol. 438, Springer, 2012. [37] M. Růžička, Electrorheological Fluids: Modeling and Mathematical Theory, vol. 1748 of Lecture Notes in Mathematics, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000. doi: 10.1007/BFb0104029. [38] R. Showalter, Monotone Operators in Banach Space and Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations, vol. 49 of Mathematical Surveys and Monographs, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 1997. [39] L. Tartar, Problèmes de contrôle des coefficients dans des équations aux dérivées partielles, in Control Theory, Numerical Methods and Computer Systems Modelling (Internat. Sympos., IRIA LABORIA, Rocquencourt, 1974), Springer, Berlin, 1975,420-426. Lecture Notes in Econom. and Math. Systems, Vol. 107. [40] D. Valério and J. Sá da Costa, An Introduction to Fractional Control, vol. 91 of IET Control Engineering Series, Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), London, 2013. [41] J. Vázquez, The Dirichlet problem for the fractional $p$-Laplacian evolution equation, J. Differential Equations, 260 (2016), 6038-6056.  doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2015.12.033. [42] M. Warma, A fractional Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator on bounded Lipschitz domains, Commun. Pure Appl. Anal., 14 (2015), 2043-2067.  doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2015.14.2043. [43] M. Warma, The fractional relative capacity and the fractional Laplacian with Neumann and Robin boundary conditions on open sets, Potential Anal., 42 (2015), 499-547.  doi: 10.1007/s11118-014-9443-4. [44] M. Warma, The fractional Neumann and Robin type boundary conditions for the regional fractional p-Laplacian, NoDEA Nonlinear Differential Equations Appl., 23 (2016), Art. 1, 46. doi: 10.1007/s00030-016-0354-5. [45] M. Warma, Local Lipschitz continuity of the inverse of the fractional p-Laplacian, Hölder type continuity and continuous dependence of solutions to associated parabolic equations on bounded domains, Nonlinear Anal., 135 (2016), 129-157.  doi: 10.1016/j.na.2016.01.022. [46] M. Warma, On a fractional (s, p)-Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator on bounded lipschitz domains, J. Elliptic and Parabol. Equ., 4 (2018), 223-269.  doi: 10.1007/s41808-018-0017-2.

show all references

##### References:
 [1] D. Adams and L. Hedberg, Function Spaces and Potential Theory, vol. 314 of Grundlehren der Mathematischen Wissenschaften [Fundamental Principles of Mathematical Sciences], Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996. doi: 10.1007/978-3-662-03282-4. [2] L. Ambrosio, N. Fusco and D. Pallara, Functions of Bounded Variation and Free Discontinuity Problems, Oxford Mathematical Monographs, The Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, New York, 2000. [3] H. Antil and S. Bartels, Spectral approximation of fractional PDEs in image processing and phase field modeling, Comput. Methods Appl. Math., 17 (2017), 661-678.  doi: 10.1515/cmam-2017-0039. [4] H. Antil, J. Pfefferer and M. Warma, A note on semilinear fractional elliptic equation: analysis and discretization, Math. Model. Numer. Anal. (ESAIM: M2AN), 51 (2017), 2049-2067. [5] V. Benci, P. D'Avenia, D. Fortunato and L. Pisani, Solitons in several space dimensions:Derrick's problem and infinitely many solutions, Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal., 154 (2000), 297-324.  doi: 10.1007/s002050000101. [6] C. Bjorland, L. Caffarelli and A. Figalli, Nonlocal tug-of-war and the infinity fractional Laplacian, Comm. Pure Appl. Math., 65 (2012), 337-380.  doi: 10.1002/cpa.21379. [7] K. Bogdan, K. Burdzy and Z.-Q. Chen, Censored stable processes, Probab. Theory Related Fields, 127 (2003), 89-152.  doi: 10.1007/s00440-003-0275-1. [8] J. Bourgain, H. Brezis and P. Mironescu, Another look at sobolev spaces, in Optimal Control and Partial Differential Equation, Conference, 2001,439-455. [9] J. Bourgain, H. Brezis and P. Mironescu, Limiting embedding theorems for $W^{s,p}$ when $s\uparrow1$ and applications, J. Anal. Math., 87 (2002), 77-101, Dedicated to the memory of Thomas H.  doi: 10.1007/BF02868470. [10] L. Brasco, E. Parini and M. Squassina, Stability of variational eigenvalues for the fractional $p$-Laplacian, Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst., 36 (2016), 1813-1845.  doi: 10.3934/dcds.2016.36.1813. [11] L. Caffarelli, Non-local diffusions, drifts and game, Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations, Abel Sym- posia, 7 (2012), 37-52. [12] L. Caffarelli and L. Silvestre, An extension problem related to the fractional Laplacian, Comm. Partial Differential Equations, 32 (2007), 1245-1260.  doi: 10.1080/03605300600987306. [13] L. Caffarelli, J.-M. Roquejoffre and Y. Sire, Variational problems for free boundaries for the fractional Laplacian, J. Eur. Math. Soc. (JEMS), 12 (2010), 1151-1179.  doi: 10.4171/JEMS/226. [14] L. Caffarelli, S. Salsa and L. Silvestre, Regularity estimates for the solution and the free boundary of the obstacle problem for the fractional Laplacian, Invent. Math., 171 (2008), 425-461.  doi: 10.1007/s00222-007-0086-6. [15] E. Casas, P. Kogut and G. Leugering, Approximation of optimal control problems in the coefficient for the $p$-Laplace equation. I. Convergence result, SIAM J. Control Optim., 54 (2016), 1406-1422.  doi: 10.1137/15M1028108. [16] A. Di Castro., T. Kuusi. and G. Palatucci, Nonlocal Harnack inequalities, J. Funct. Anal., 267 (2014), 1807-1836.  doi: 10.1016/j.jfa.2014.05.023. [17] A. Di Castro., T. Kuusi and G. Palatucci, Local behavior of fractional $p$-minimizers, Ann. Inst. H. Poincaré Anal. Non Linéaire, 33 (2016), 1279-1299.  doi: 10.1016/j.anihpc.2015.04.003. [18] E. Di Nezza, G. Palatucci and E. Valdinoci, Hitchhiker's guide to the fractional Sobolev spaces, Bull. Sci. Math., 136 (2012), 521-573.  doi: 10.1016/j.bulsci.2011.12.004. [19] E. DiBenedetto, Degenerate Parabolic Equations, Universitext, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1993. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4612-0895-2. [20] L. Diening, A. Prohl and M. Růžička, Semi-implicit Euler scheme for generalized Newtonian fluids, SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 44 (2006), 1172-1190 (electronic).  doi: 10.1137/050634335. [21] L. Diening and S. Schwarzacher, Global gradient estimates for the $p$(·)-Laplacian, Nonlinear Anal., 106 (2014), 70-85.  doi: 10.1016/j.na.2014.04.006. [22] P. Drábek and J. Milota, Methods of Nonlinear Analysis, 2nd edition, Birkhäuser Advanced Texts: Basler Lehrbücher. [Birkhäuser Advanced Texts: Basel Textbooks], Birkhäuser/Springer Basel AG, Basel, 2013, Applications to differential equations. doi: 10.1007/978-3-0348-0387-8. [23] A. Elmoataz, M. Toutain and D. Tenbrinck, On the $p$-Laplacian and ∞-Laplacian on graphs with applications in image and data processing, SIAM J. Imaging Sci., 8 (2015), 2412-2451.  doi: 10.1137/15M1022793. [24] L. Evans, Partial differential equations and Monge-Kantorovich mass transfer, in Current Developments in Mathematics, 1997 (Cambridge, MA), Int. Press, Boston, MA, 1999, 65-126. [25] C.G. Gal and M. Warma, On some degenerate non-local parabolic equation associated with the fractional $p$-Laplacian, Dyn. Partial Differ. Equ., 14 (2017), 47-77.  doi: 10.4310/DPDE.2017.v14.n1.a4. [26] P. Grisvard, Elliptic Problems in Nonsmooth Domains, vol. 24 of Monographs and Studies in Mathematics, Pitman (Advanced Publishing Program), Boston, MA, 1985. [27] A. Jonsson and H. Wallin, Function spaces on subsets of ${\bf R}^n$, Math. Rep., 2 (1984), xiv+221pp. [28] O. Kupenko and R. Manzo, Approximation of an optimal control problem in coefficient for variational inequality with anisotropic p-Laplacian, NoDEA Nonlinear Differential Equations Appl., 23 (2016), Art. 35, 18pp. doi: 10.1007/s00030-016-0387-9. [29] T. Kuusi, G. Mingione and Y. Sire, Nonlocal equations with measure data, Comm. Math. Phys., 337 (2015), 1317-1368.  doi: 10.1007/s00220-015-2356-2. [30] J.-L. Lions and E. Magenes, Non-homogeneous Boundary Value Problems and Applications, Vol. I, Springer-Verlag, New York-Heidelberg, 1972, Translated from the French by P. Kenneth, Die Grundlehren der mathematischen Wissenschaften, Band 181. [31] F. Mainardi, Fractional Calculus and Waves in Linear Viscoelasticity, Imperial College Press, London, 2010, An introduction to mathematical models. doi: 10.1142/9781848163300. [32] V. Maz'ya and S. Poborchi, Differentiable Functions on Bad Domains, World Scientific Publishing Co., Inc., River Edge, NJ, 1997. [33] F. Murat, Un contre-exemple pour le problème du contrôle dans les coefficients, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Sér. A-B, 273 (1971), A708-A711. [34] F. Murat, Contre-exemples pour divers problèmes où le contrôle intervient dans les coefficients, Ann. Mat. Pura Appl. (4), 112 (1977), 49-68. [35] F. Murat and L. Tartar, H-convergence, in Topics in the Mathematical Modelling of Composite Materials, vol. 31 of Progr. Nonlinear Differential Equations Appl., Birkhäuser Boston, Boston, MA, 1997, 21-43. [36] I. Pan and S. Das, Intelligent Fractional Order Systems and Control: An Introduction, vol. 438, Springer, 2012. [37] M. Růžička, Electrorheological Fluids: Modeling and Mathematical Theory, vol. 1748 of Lecture Notes in Mathematics, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000. doi: 10.1007/BFb0104029. [38] R. Showalter, Monotone Operators in Banach Space and Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations, vol. 49 of Mathematical Surveys and Monographs, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 1997. [39] L. Tartar, Problèmes de contrôle des coefficients dans des équations aux dérivées partielles, in Control Theory, Numerical Methods and Computer Systems Modelling (Internat. Sympos., IRIA LABORIA, Rocquencourt, 1974), Springer, Berlin, 1975,420-426. Lecture Notes in Econom. and Math. Systems, Vol. 107. [40] D. Valério and J. Sá da Costa, An Introduction to Fractional Control, vol. 91 of IET Control Engineering Series, Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), London, 2013. [41] J. Vázquez, The Dirichlet problem for the fractional $p$-Laplacian evolution equation, J. Differential Equations, 260 (2016), 6038-6056.  doi: 10.1016/j.jde.2015.12.033. [42] M. Warma, A fractional Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator on bounded Lipschitz domains, Commun. Pure Appl. Anal., 14 (2015), 2043-2067.  doi: 10.3934/cpaa.2015.14.2043. [43] M. Warma, The fractional relative capacity and the fractional Laplacian with Neumann and Robin boundary conditions on open sets, Potential Anal., 42 (2015), 499-547.  doi: 10.1007/s11118-014-9443-4. [44] M. Warma, The fractional Neumann and Robin type boundary conditions for the regional fractional p-Laplacian, NoDEA Nonlinear Differential Equations Appl., 23 (2016), Art. 1, 46. doi: 10.1007/s00030-016-0354-5. [45] M. Warma, Local Lipschitz continuity of the inverse of the fractional p-Laplacian, Hölder type continuity and continuous dependence of solutions to associated parabolic equations on bounded domains, Nonlinear Anal., 135 (2016), 129-157.  doi: 10.1016/j.na.2016.01.022. [46] M. Warma, On a fractional (s, p)-Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator on bounded lipschitz domains, J. Elliptic and Parabol. Equ., 4 (2018), 223-269.  doi: 10.1007/s41808-018-0017-2.
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