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Sketch-based image retrieval via CAT loss with elastic net regularization

  • * Corresponding author: Jia Cai

    * Corresponding author: Jia Cai 
The first author is supported partially by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11871167,11671171), Science and Technology Program of Guangzhou (201707010228), Special Support Plan for High-Level Talents of Guangdong Province (2019TQ05X571), Foundation of Guangdong Educational Committee (2019KZDZX1023), Project of Collaborative Innovation Development Center of Pearl River Delta Science & Technology Finance Industry (19XT01), National Social Science Foundation (19AJY027), Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong (2016A030313710)
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  • Fine-grained sketch-based image retrieval (FG-SBIR) is an important problem that uses free-hand human sketch as queries to perform instance-level retrieval of photos. Human sketches are generally highly abstract and iconic, which makes FG-SBIR a challenging task. Existing FG-SBIR approaches using triplet loss with $ \ell_2 $ regularization or higher-order energy function to conduct retrieval performance, which neglect the feature gap between different domains (sketches, photos) and need to select the weight layer matrix. This yields high computational complexity. In this paper, we define a new CAT loss function with elastic net regularization based on attention model. It can close the feature gap between different subnetworks and embody the sparsity of the sketches. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach is competitive with state-of-the-art methods.

    Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary: 68T45; Secondary: 68T05.

    Citation:

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  • Figure 1.  Architecture of the model

    Figure 2.  Examples of stroke removal

    Table 1.  Network structure

    $ Index $ Layer Type Filter size Filter number Stride Pad Output size
    $ 0 $ $Input$ $-$ $-$ $-$ $-$ $225\times225$
    $1$ $L1$ $Conv$ $15\times15$ 64 3 0 $71\times71$
    $2$ $ ReLU $ $ - $ $ - $ $ - $ $ - $ $ 71\times71 $
    $ 3 $ Maxpool $3\times3$ $-$ 2 0 $35\times35$
    $4$ $L2$ $Conv$ $5\times5$ 128 1 0 $31\times31$
    $5$ $ ReLU $ $ - $ $ - $ $ - $ $ - $ $ 31\times31 $
    $ 6 $ Maxpool $3\times3$ $-$ 2 0 $15\times15$
    $7$ $L3$ $Conv$ $3\times3$ 256 1 1 $15\times15$
    $8$ $ ReLU $ $ - $ $ - $ $ - $ $ - $ $ 15\times15 $
    $ 9 $ $ L4 $ $ Conv $ $ 3\times3 $ 256 1 1 $ 15\times15 $
    $ 10 $ $ReLU$ $-$ $-$ $-$ $-$ $15\times15$
    $11$ $L5$ $Conv$ $3\times3$ 256 1 1 $15\times15$
    $12$ $ ReLU $ $ - $ $ - $ $ - $ $ - $ $ 15\times15 $
    $ 13 $ Maxpool $3\times3$ $-$ 2 0 $7\times7$
    $14$ $L6$ $Conv( = FC)$ $7\times7$ 512 1 $0$ $1\times1$
    $15$ $ ReLU $ $ - $ $ - $ $ - $ $ - $ $ 1\times1 $
    $ 16 $ Dropout (0.55) $-$ $-$ $-$ $-$ $1\times1$
    $17$ $L7$ $Conv( = FC)$ $1\times1$ 256 1 $0$ $1\times1$
    $18$ $ ReLU $ $ - $ $ - $ $ - $ $ - $ $ 1\times1 $
    $ 19 $ Dropout (0.55) $-$ $-$ $-$ $-$ $1\times1$
     | Show Table
    DownLoad: CSV

    Table 2.  Comparative results against baselines on QMUL-shoe dataset

    QMUL-shoe $ Acc.@1 $ $ Acc.@10 $
    HOG+BoW+RankSVM 17.39% 67.83%
    Deep ISN 20.00% 62.61%
    Triplet SN 52.17% 92.17%
    Triplet DSSA 61.74% 94.78%
    Our model 56.52% 96.52%
     | Show Table
    DownLoad: CSV

    Table 3.  Comparative results against baselines on QMUL-chair dataset

    QMUL-chair $ Acc.@1 $ $ Acc.@10 $
    HOG+BoW+RankSVM 28.87% 67.01%
    Deep ISN 47.42% 82.47%
    Triplet SN 72.16% 98.96%
    Triplet DSSA 81.44% 95.88%
    Our model 81.44% 98.97%
     | Show Table
    DownLoad: CSV

    Table 4.  Comparative results against baselines on QMUL-handbag dataset

    QMUL-handbag $ Acc.@1 $ $ Acc.@10 $
    HOG+BoW+RankSVM 2.38% 10.71%
    Deep ISN 9.52% 44.05%
    Triplet SN 39.88% 82.14%
    Triplet DSSA 49.40% 82.74%
    Our model 54.76% 88.69%
     | Show Table
    DownLoad: CSV

    Table 5.  Contributions of different components

    QMUL-shoe $ Acc.@1 $ $ Acc.@10 $
    Triplet loss+data aug 50.43% 93.91%
    CAT loss+no data aug 49.57% 94.78%
    Our model 54.78% 96.52%
    QMUL-chair $ Acc.@1 $ $ Acc.@10 $
    Triplet loss+data aug 78.35% 97.94%
    CAT loss+no data aug 76.29% 96.91%
    Our model 81.44% 98.97%
    QMUL-handbag $ Acc.@1 $ $ Acc.@10 $
    Triplet loss+data aug 51.19% 86.31%
    CAT loss+no data aug 51.79% 86.90%
    Our model 54.76% 88.69%
     | Show Table
    DownLoad: CSV
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