March  2015, 10(1): 167-194. doi: 10.3934/nhm.2015.10.167

Complexity, selectivity and asymmetry in the conformation of the power phenomenon. Analysis of Chilean society

1. 

Inria-Chile, Apoquindo 2827, Piso 12. Las Condes, Santiago, Chile

2. 

Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Centro de Estudios y Asistencia Legislativa-CEAL, Avenida Brasil, 2950, Valparaíso, Chile

3. 

Instituto de Sistemas Complejos de Valparaíso, Subida Artillería 470, Valparaíso, Chile

Received  June 2014 Revised  November 2014 Published  February 2015

In this work we analyzed the relationships between powerful politicians and businessmen of Chile in order to study the phenomenon of social power. We developed our study according to Complex Network Theory but also using traditional sociological theories of Power and Elites. Our analyses suggest that the studied network displays common properties of Complex Networks, such as scaling in connectivity distribution, properties of small-world networks, and modular structure, among others. We also observed that social power (a proposed metric is presented in this work) is also distributed inhomogeneously. However, the most interesting observation is that this inhomogeneous power and connectivity distribution, among other observed properties, may be the result of a dynamic and unregulated process of network growth in which powerful people tend to link to similar others. The compatibility between people, increasingly selective as the network grows, could generate the presence of extremely powerful people, but also a constant inequality of power where the difference between the most powerful is the same as among the least powerful. Our results are also in accordance with sociological theories.
Citation: Juan Pablo Cárdenas, Gerardo Vidal, Gastón Olivares. Complexity, selectivity and asymmetry in the conformation of the power phenomenon. Analysis of Chilean society. Networks and Heterogeneous Media, 2015, 10 (1) : 167-194. doi: 10.3934/nhm.2015.10.167
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J. P. Cárdenas, M. Mouronte, J. C. Losada and R. M. Benito, Compatibility as underlying mechanism behind the evolution of networks, Physica A, 389 (2010), 1789-1798.

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W. Kornhauser, The Politics of Mass Society, Routledge, New York, 1959.

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E. Laszlo, La Gran Bifurcación. Crisis y Oportunidad; Anticipación del Nuevo Paradigma que Está Tomando Forma, Gedisa, Barcelona, 1990.

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G. Lenski, Poder y Privilegio. Teoría de la Estratificación Social, Paidós, Buenos Aires, 1969.

[31]

R. López, E. Figueroa and P. Gutiérrez, La parte del León: Nuevas estimaciones de la participación de los súper ricos en el ingreso de Chile, Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía. Serie de Documentos de Trabajo, 2013. Available from: http://www.econ.uchile.cl/uploads/publicacion/306018fadb3ac79952bf1395a555a90a86633790.pdf.

[32]

C. Maldonado, Complejidad y ciencias sociales. el problema de la medición de los sistemas sociales humanos, Complejidad de las ciencias y ciencias de la complejidad, (2006), 1-145.

[33]

B. Marmuc, Ideología, matemáticas y ciencias sociales, W. Pareto y G. Sorel y la ambigüedad en la comparación de las desigualdades, Revista de Metodología de Ciencias Sociales, 5 (2013), 11-28.

[34]

A. Mayol, El Derrumbe del Modelo, LOM, Santiago, 2013.

[35]

M. Mitchell, Complexity. A Guided Tour, Oxford University Press, New York, 2003.

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R. Michels, Los Partidos Políticos, Amorrortu, Buenos Aires, 1976.

[37]

W. Mills, La Elite del Poder, $9^{th}$ edition, Fondo de Cultura Económica, México, 1988.

[38]

J. Molina-Cano, Las nociones de mando y obediencia en la teoría política de Julien Freund, Díkaion, 23 (2009). Available from: http://dikaion.unisabana.edu.co/index.php/dikaion/article/view/1550/2126.

[39]

G. Mosca, La Clase Política, $2^{nd}$ edition, Fondo de Cultura Económica, México, 1980.

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G. Mosca, Elementi di Scienza Politica,, Reproduction of the original version. Available from: , (). 

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[42]

P. Navarro, El Fenómeno de la Complejidad Social Humana, Curso de Doctorado Interdisciplinar en Sistemas Complejos, 1996. Available from: http://home.dsoc.uevora.pt/ eje/complexidade_social.html.

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[44]

M. E. J. Newman, A.-L. Barabási and D. Watts, The Structure and Dynamics of Networks, Princeton University Press, New York, 2006.

[45]

M. E. J. Newman, Assortativity mixing in networks, Physical Review Letters, 89 (2002), 208701. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.89.208701.

[46]

P. Nocera, El debate Gabriel Tarde y Emile Durkheim. De las disparidades iniciales explícitas a las convergencias tardías implícitas., Available from: , (). 

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L. Page, S. Brin, R. Motwani and T. Winograd, The PageRank citation ranking: Bringing order to the Web,, 1999. Available from: , (): 1999. 

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[51]

H. Rheingold, Multitudes Inteligentes, Gedisa, Barcelona, 2004.

[52]

G. Ritzer, Teoría Sociológica Clásica, $1^{st}$ edition, Imprenta San Francisco de Sales, Madrid, 1920.

[53]

G. Ritzer, Teoría Sociológica Contemporánea, McGraw-Hill, México, 1994.

[54]

G. Ritzer, Teoría Sociológica Clásica, McGraw-Hill, México, 1994.

[55]

P. Rodrigo and D. Arenas, La nueva gobernanza política y las colaboraciones intersectoriales para el desarrollo sostenible, Innovar, 24 (2014), 197-210. doi: 10.15446/innovar.v24n53.43945.

[56]

G. Runciman, Crítica de la Filosofía de las Ciencias Sociales de Max Weber, Fondo de Cultura Económica, México, 1976.

[57]

F. Sanchez López, Sociología de la Acción. Introducción a la obra de Talcott Parsons, Instituto Balmes de Sociología, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, 1964.

[58]

R. Sole, Redes Complejas. Del Genoma a Internet, Tusquets Eds., Barcelona, 2009.

[59]

N. N. Taleb, The Black Swan, Random House, New York, 2010.

[60]

R. Thom, Esbozo de una Semiofísica. Física Aristotélica y Teoría de las Catástrofes, Gedisa, Barcelona, 1990.

[61]

J. Touchard, Historia de las Ideas Políticas, Tecnos, Madrid, 1987.

[62]

G. Vidal, Chile Ante una Encrucijada?,, 2011. Available from: , (). 

[63]

D. J. Watts and S. H. Strogatz, Collective dynamics of small-world networks, Nature, 393 (1998), 440-442.

[64]

M. Weber, Economía y Sociedad, Fondo de Cultura Económica, México, 1964.

show all references

References:
[1]

P. S. Adler and S. W. Kwon, Social Capital: Prospects for a new concept, The Academy of Management Review, 27 (2002), 17-40. doi: 10.2307/4134367.

[2]

J. Alonso, Pareto, $1^{st}$ edition, Edicol, México, 1977.

[3]

J. Alstott, E. Bullmore and D. Plenz, Powerlaw: A python package for analysis of heavy-tailed distributions,, preprint, (). 

[4]

F. Alvaredo, A. B. Atkinson, T. Piketty and E. Saez, The top 1 percent in international and historical perspective, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 27 (2013), 3-20. doi: 10.1257/jep.27.3.3.

[5]

G. Álvarez, Caos/Complejidad, Fractales e Identidades sociales, Razón y Palabra, 79 (2012). Available from: http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=199524411055.

[6]

R. Aron, La Sociología Alemana Contemporánea, Paidós, Buenos Aires, 1965.

[7]

P. Ball, Critical Mass, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 2004.

[8]

A.-L. Barabási and R. Albert, Emergence of scaling in random networks, Science, 286 (1999), 509-512. doi: 10.1126/science.286.5439.509.

[9]

J. A. Barbier, Elite and cadres in bourbon Chile, The Hispanic American Historical Review, 52 (1972), 416-435. doi: 10.2307/2512001.

[10]

J. Bascompte and B. Luque, Evolución y Complejidad, Publicacions de la Universitat de Valéncia, Valéncia, 2012.

[11]

J. Bascompte and P. Jordano, Plant-animal mutualistic networks: the architecture of biodiversity, Anual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 38 (2007), 567-593. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.38.091206.095818.

[12]

R. Bendix, Max Weber and Intellectual Portrait, Doubleday & Company, Inc., New York, 1962.

[13]

L. von Bertalanffy, Teoría General de los Sistemas, México, 1991. Available from: http://es.scribd.com/doc/135617671/TGS-Bertalanffy-pdf?

[14]

V. D. Blondel, J.-L. Guillaume, R. Lambiotte and E. Lefebvre, Fast unfolding of communities in large networks, Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiments, 2008 (2008), P10008.

[15]

M. Buchanan, Ubiquity, Three River Press, New York, 2000.

[16]

J. P. Cárdenas, M. Mouronte, J. C. Losada and R. M. Benito, Compatibility as underlying mechanism behind the evolution of networks, Physica A, 389 (2010), 1789-1798.

[17]

R. Dahl, La Poliarquía: Partcipación y Oposición, Tecnos, 2009.

[18]

R. Dahrendorf, La Ley y el Orden, $1^{st}$ edition, Editorial Civitas, 1994.

[19]

S. Deploigé, El Conflicto de la Moral y de la Sociología, McGraw-Hill, México, 1920.

[20]

S. N. Dorogovtsev and J. F. F. Mendes, Evolution of Networks. From Biological Nets to the Internet and WWW, Oxford University Press, New York, 2003. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515906.001.0001.

[21]

E. Durkheim, Las Reglas del Método Sociológico, Dedalo, Buenos Aires, 1964.

[22]

P. Erdős and A. Rényi, On random graphs, Publicationes Mathematicae (Debrecen), 6 (1959), 290-297.

[23]

M. Foucault, Microfísica del Poder, $2^{nd}$ edition, La Piqueta, Madrid, 1980.

[24]

O. González del Cardenal, El Poder y la Conciencia. Rostros Personales Frente a Poderes An\'onimos, $2^{nd}$ edition, Espasa Calpe, Madrid, 1985.

[25]

M. S. Granovetter, The strength of weak ties, American Journal of Sociology, 78 (1973), 1360-1380. doi: 10.1086/225469.

[26]

F. Harary, R. Norman and D. Cartwright, Structural Models, Wiley, New York, 1965.

[27]

P. Klimek, R. Lambiotte and S. Thurner, Opinion formation in laggard societies, Europhysics Letters, 82 (2008), 28008, 6pp. doi: 10.1209/0295-5075/82/28008.

[28]

W. Kornhauser, The Politics of Mass Society, Routledge, New York, 1959.

[29]

E. Laszlo, La Gran Bifurcación. Crisis y Oportunidad; Anticipación del Nuevo Paradigma que Está Tomando Forma, Gedisa, Barcelona, 1990.

[30]

G. Lenski, Poder y Privilegio. Teoría de la Estratificación Social, Paidós, Buenos Aires, 1969.

[31]

R. López, E. Figueroa and P. Gutiérrez, La parte del León: Nuevas estimaciones de la participación de los súper ricos en el ingreso de Chile, Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía. Serie de Documentos de Trabajo, 2013. Available from: http://www.econ.uchile.cl/uploads/publicacion/306018fadb3ac79952bf1395a555a90a86633790.pdf.

[32]

C. Maldonado, Complejidad y ciencias sociales. el problema de la medición de los sistemas sociales humanos, Complejidad de las ciencias y ciencias de la complejidad, (2006), 1-145.

[33]

B. Marmuc, Ideología, matemáticas y ciencias sociales, W. Pareto y G. Sorel y la ambigüedad en la comparación de las desigualdades, Revista de Metodología de Ciencias Sociales, 5 (2013), 11-28.

[34]

A. Mayol, El Derrumbe del Modelo, LOM, Santiago, 2013.

[35]

M. Mitchell, Complexity. A Guided Tour, Oxford University Press, New York, 2003.

[36]

R. Michels, Los Partidos Políticos, Amorrortu, Buenos Aires, 1976.

[37]

W. Mills, La Elite del Poder, $9^{th}$ edition, Fondo de Cultura Económica, México, 1988.

[38]

J. Molina-Cano, Las nociones de mando y obediencia en la teoría política de Julien Freund, Díkaion, 23 (2009). Available from: http://dikaion.unisabana.edu.co/index.php/dikaion/article/view/1550/2126.

[39]

G. Mosca, La Clase Política, $2^{nd}$ edition, Fondo de Cultura Económica, México, 1980.

[40]

G. Mosca, Elementi di Scienza Politica,, Reproduction of the original version. Available from: , (). 

[41]

J. Nahapiet and S. Ghoshal, Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organization advantage, The Academy of Management Review, 23 (1998), 242-266.

[42]

P. Navarro, El Fenómeno de la Complejidad Social Humana, Curso de Doctorado Interdisciplinar en Sistemas Complejos, 1996. Available from: http://home.dsoc.uevora.pt/ eje/complexidade_social.html.

[43]

M. E. J. Newman, The structure and functions of complex networks, SIAM Review, 45 (2003), 167-256. doi: 10.1137/S003614450342480.

[44]

M. E. J. Newman, A.-L. Barabási and D. Watts, The Structure and Dynamics of Networks, Princeton University Press, New York, 2006.

[45]

M. E. J. Newman, Assortativity mixing in networks, Physical Review Letters, 89 (2002), 208701. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.89.208701.

[46]

P. Nocera, El debate Gabriel Tarde y Emile Durkheim. De las disparidades iniciales explícitas a las convergencias tardías implícitas., Available from: , (). 

[47]

L. Page, S. Brin, R. Motwani and T. Winograd, The PageRank citation ranking: Bringing order to the Web,, 1999. Available from: , (): 1999. 

[48]

W. Pareto, Reseña de su Obra, Socio-Ciencia, 2009. Available from: http://socio-ciencia.blogspot.com/2009/10/wlfredo-pareto-una-resena-de-su-obra.html.

[49]

T. Parsons and E. Shils, Toward a General Theory of Action, Harper & Row Publishers, New York, 1962. doi: 10.4159/harvard.9780674863507.

[50]

PNUD-Chile, La Élite Chilena y la Difícil Conducción del Desarrollo, PNUD, 2004. Available from: http://www.centrodesarrollohumano.org/pmb/opac_css/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=923#.U3DOTtyodrQ.

[51]

H. Rheingold, Multitudes Inteligentes, Gedisa, Barcelona, 2004.

[52]

G. Ritzer, Teoría Sociológica Clásica, $1^{st}$ edition, Imprenta San Francisco de Sales, Madrid, 1920.

[53]

G. Ritzer, Teoría Sociológica Contemporánea, McGraw-Hill, México, 1994.

[54]

G. Ritzer, Teoría Sociológica Clásica, McGraw-Hill, México, 1994.

[55]

P. Rodrigo and D. Arenas, La nueva gobernanza política y las colaboraciones intersectoriales para el desarrollo sostenible, Innovar, 24 (2014), 197-210. doi: 10.15446/innovar.v24n53.43945.

[56]

G. Runciman, Crítica de la Filosofía de las Ciencias Sociales de Max Weber, Fondo de Cultura Económica, México, 1976.

[57]

F. Sanchez López, Sociología de la Acción. Introducción a la obra de Talcott Parsons, Instituto Balmes de Sociología, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, 1964.

[58]

R. Sole, Redes Complejas. Del Genoma a Internet, Tusquets Eds., Barcelona, 2009.

[59]

N. N. Taleb, The Black Swan, Random House, New York, 2010.

[60]

R. Thom, Esbozo de una Semiofísica. Física Aristotélica y Teoría de las Catástrofes, Gedisa, Barcelona, 1990.

[61]

J. Touchard, Historia de las Ideas Políticas, Tecnos, Madrid, 1987.

[62]

G. Vidal, Chile Ante una Encrucijada?,, 2011. Available from: , (). 

[63]

D. J. Watts and S. H. Strogatz, Collective dynamics of small-world networks, Nature, 393 (1998), 440-442.

[64]

M. Weber, Economía y Sociedad, Fondo de Cultura Económica, México, 1964.

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