Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - S
April 2020 , Volume 13 , Issue 4
Dynamical systems and geometric mechanics: A special issue in Honor of Jürgen Scheurle
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Actual research concerning, in particular, the occurrence of "gap-solitons" bifurcating from the continuous spectrum confirms that this part of Bifurcation Theory that started around 40 years ago flourishes. In this lecture we review the origins of "Bifurcation from the continuous spectrum" with regard to the achievements of Jürgen Scheurle and sketch how the early results dealing with the bifurcation of singular solutions have prepared the ground for present and further developments.
The four Galilean moons of Jupiter were discovered by Galileo in the early 17th century, and their motion was first seen as a miniature solar system. Around 1800 Laplace discovered that the Galilean motion is subjected to an orbital
We study time-minimum optimal control for a class of quantum two-dimensional dissipative systems whose dynamics are governed by the Lindblad equation and where control inputs acts only in the Hamiltonian. The dynamics of the control system are analyzed as a bi-linear control system on the Bloch ball after a decoupling of such dynamics into intra- and inter-unitary orbits. The (singular) control problem consists of finding a trajectory of the state variables solving a radial equation in the minimum amount of time, starting at the completely mixed state and ending at the state with the maximum achievable purity.
The boundary value problem determined by the time-minimum singular optimal control problem is studied numerically. If controls are unbounded, simulations show that multiple local minimal solutions might exist. To find the unique globally minimal solution, we must repeat the algorithm for various initial conditions and find the best solution out of all of the candidates. If controls are bounded, optimal controls are given by bang-bang controls using the Pontryagin minimum principle. Using a switching map we construct optimal solutions consisting of singular arcs. If controls are bounded, the analysis of our model also implies classical analysis done previously for this problem.
This paper presents the continuous and discrete variational formulations of simple thermodynamical systems whose configuration space is a (finite dimensional) Lie group. We follow the variational approach to nonequilibrium thermodynamics developed in [
In this paper we define an action of a Lie algebra on a smooth manifold. We get nearly the same results as those for group actions, when the flows of the symmetry vector fields are complete. We show that the orbit space of a Lie algebra action is a differential space. We discuss differential spaces occuring in the reduction of symmetries in integrable Hamiltonian systems.
We answer here a question posed by F. Diacu in 2012 that asked whether there exist relative equilibria on
We study scalar delay equations
with odd nonlinearity
These results complement earlier results in [
with a third delay
We analyze a simplistic model for run-and-tumble dynamics, motivated by observations of complex spatio-temporal patterns in colonies of myxobacteria. In our model, agents run with fixed speed either left or right, and agents turn with a density-dependent nonlinear turning rate, in addition to diffusive Brownian motion. We show how a very simple nonlinearity in the turning rate can mediate the formation of self-organized stationary clusters and fronts. Phenomenologically, we demonstrate the formation of barriers, where high concentrations of agents at the boundary of a cluster, moving towards the center of a cluster, prevent the agents caught in the cluster from escaping. Mathematically, we analyze stationary solutions in a four-dimensional ODE with a conserved quantity and a reversibility symmetry, using a combination of bifurcation methods, geometric arguments, and numerical continuation. We also present numerical results on the temporal stability of the solutions found here.
I give a short review of the theory of twisted symmetries of differential equations, emphasizing geometrical aspects. Some open problems are also mentioned.
We review opportunities for stochastic geometric mechanics to incorporate observed data into variational principles, in order to derive data-driven nonlinear dynamical models of effects on the variability of computationally resolvable scales of fluid motion, due to unresolvable, small, rapid scales of fluid motion.
The field of sub-Riemannian geometry has flourished in the past four decades through the strong interactions between problems arising in applied science (in areas such as robotics) and questions of a pure mathematical character about the nature of space. Methods of control theory, such as controllability properties determined by Lie brackets of vector fields, the Hamilton equations associated to the Maximum Principle of optimal control, Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation etc. have all been found to be basic tools for answering such questions. In this paper, we find a useful role for the vantage point of sub-Riemannian geometry in attacking a problem of interest in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics: how does one create rules for operation of micro- and nano-scale systems (heat engines) that are subject to fluctuations from the surroundings, so as to be able to do useful things such as converting heat into work over a cycle of operation? We exploit geometric optimal control theory to produce such rules selected for maximal efficiency. This is done by working concretely with a model problem, the stochastic oscillator. Essential to our work is a separation of time scales used with great efficacy by physicists and justified in the linear response regime.
We investigate a singularly perturbed, non-convex variational problem arising in material science with a combination of geometrical and numerical methods. Our starting point is a work by Stefan Müller, where it is proven that the solutions of the variational problem are periodic and exhibit a complicated multi-scale structure. In order to get more insight into the rich solution structure, we transform the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equation into a Hamiltonian system of first order ODEs and then use geometric singular perturbation theory to study its periodic solutions. Based on the geometric analysis we construct an initial periodic orbit to start numerical continuation of periodic orbits with respect to the key parameters. This allows us to observe the influence of the parameters on the behavior of the orbits and to study their interplay in the minimization process. Our results confirm previous analytical results such as the asymptotics of the period of minimizers predicted by Müller. Furthermore, we find several new structures in the entire space of admissible periodic orbits.
The area of dynamical systems where one investigates dynamical properties that can be described in topological terms is "Topological Dynamics". Investigating the topological properties of spaces and maps that can be described in dynamical terms is in a sense the opposite idea. This area has been recently called "Dynamical Topology". As an illustration, some topological properties of the space of all transitive interval maps are described. For (discrete) dynamical systems given by compact metric spaces and continuous (surjective) self-maps we survey some results on two new notions: "Slovak Space" and "Dynamical Compactness". A Slovak space, as a dynamical analogue of a rigid space, is a nontrivial compact metric space whose homeomorphism group is cyclic and generated by a minimal homeomorphism. Dynamical compactness is a new concept of chaotic dynamics. The omega-limit set of a point is a basic notion in the theory of dynamical systems and means the collection of states which "attract" this point while going forward in time. It is always nonempty when the phase space is compact. By changing the time we introduced the notion of the omega-limit set of a point with respect to a Furstenberg family. A dynamical system is called dynamically compact (with respect to a Furstenberg family) if for any point of the phase space this omega-limit set is nonempty. A nice property of dynamical compactness is that all dynamical systems are dynamically compact with respect to a Furstenberg family if and only if this family has the finite intersection property.
We discuss the occurrence of Poincaré-Andronov-Hopf bifurcations in parameter dependent ordinary differential equations, with no a priori assumptions on special coordinates. The first problem is to determine critical parameter values from which such bifurcations may emanate; a solution for this problem was given by W.-M. Liu. We add a few observations from a different perspective. Then we turn to the second problem, viz., to compute the relevant coefficients which determine the nature of the Hopf bifurcation. As shown by J. Scheurle and co-authors, this can be reduced to the computation of Poincaré-Dulac normal forms (in arbitrary coordinates) and subsequent reduction, but feasibility problems quickly arise. In the present paper we present a streamlined and less computationally involved approach to the computations. The efficiency and usefulness of the method is illustrated by examples.
We study a class of scalar differential equations on the circle
We consider the equation
We consider the dynamics of a Hamiltonian particle forced by a rapidly oscillating potential in
The purpose of this article is to discuss two basic ideas of Henri Poincaré in the theory of dynamical systems. The first one, the recurrence theorem, got at first a lot of attention but most scientists lost interest when finding out that long timescales were involved. We will show that recurrence can be a tool to find complex dynamics in resonance zones of Hamiltonian systems; this is related to the phenomenon of quasi-trapping. To demonstrate the use of recurrence phenomena we will explore the
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