Foundations of Data Science
March 2022 , Volume 4 , Issue 1
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One approach to understanding complex data is to study its shape through the lens of algebraic topology. While the early development of topological data analysis focused primarily on static data, in recent years, theoretical and applied studies have turned to data that varies in time. A time-varying collection of metric spaces as formed, for example, by a moving school of fish or flock of birds, can contain a vast amount of information. There is often a need to simplify or summarize the dynamic behavior. We provide an introduction to topological summaries of time-varying metric spaces including vineyards [
The classical Langevin Monte Carlo method looks for samples from a target distribution by descending the samples along the gradient of the target distribution. The method enjoys a fast convergence rate. However, the numerical cost is sometimes high because each iteration requires the computation of a gradient. One approach to eliminate the gradient computation is to employ the concept of "ensemble." A large number of particles are evolved together so the neighboring particles provide gradient information to each other. In this article, we discuss two algorithms that integrate the ensemble feature into LMC, and the associated properties.
In particular, we find that if one directly surrogates the gradient using the ensemble approximation, the algorithm, termed Ensemble Langevin Monte Carlo, is unstable due to a high variance term. If the gradients are replaced by the ensemble approximations only in a constrained manner, to protect from the unstable points, the algorithm, termed Constrained Ensemble Langevin Monte Carlo, resembles the classical LMC up to an ensemble error but removes most of the gradient computation.
Given an undirected measurement graph
Computing the gradient of a function provides fundamental information about its behavior. This information is essential for several applications and algorithms across various fields. One common application that requires gradients are optimization techniques such as stochastic gradient descent, Newton's method and trust region methods. However, these methods usually require a numerical computation of the gradient at every iteration of the method which is prone to numerical errors. We propose a simple limited-memory technique for improving the accuracy of a numerically computed gradient in this gradient-based optimization framework by exploiting (1) a coordinate transformation of the gradient and (2) the history of previously taken descent directions. The method is verified empirically by extensive experimentation on both test functions and on real data applications. The proposed method is implemented in the
This paper presents a new mathematical signal transform that is especially suitable for decoding information related to non-rigid signal displacements. We provide a measure theoretic framework to extend the existing Cumulative Distribution Transform [
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